Chapter 6 History of Pakistan – II

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Era: 20th December 1971 to 5th July 1977 Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto took over the office of President of Pakistan as well as Civil Martial Law Administrator on 20th December 1971. He was the first civilian Martial Law Administrator of the country. To create a new spirit in the nation, enable them to face the challenging conditions and to make people aware of his policies, he made his first speech the same day which gave new determination and zeal to the morale of the Pakistani people. He said, “The country is facing a serious crisis. I have taken over at a time when the history of Pakistan has reached its turning point. I have to build a new and progressive Pakistan which the Quaid-eAzam dreamed . It is my belief that it will definitely be done.” Main aspects of the economic reforms during 1971-77.

1. Nationalization of industries By 1971, 60% of the country’s industrial assets and 80% of the insurance business were owned by 22 families. On December 22nd, 1971 passports of the 22 capitalist families were confiscated. Industrial licenses of more than Rs. 100 million worth issued to 19 companies were declared illegal. Z.A. Bhutto considered industrial development and stability essential for the development of the people of Pakistan. His main goal was the betterment of the people. He disagreed with the policies of capitalists, the wealthy and the industrialists. To save the people from their injustice, Mr. Bhutto issued an ordinance on 2nd January, 1972 under which ten heavy industries were nationalized by the government. The industries taken over by the government are as under:

i. Automobile industry

ii. Chemical industry

iii. Consumer goods industry

iv. Steel industry

v. Heavy equipment industry

vi. Petrochemical industry

vii. Cement industry

viii. Social welfare services industry

ix. Tractor industry

x. Heavy electrical equipment industry

Under the industrial reforms, directors of 20 industrial units were terminated and their managing agencies were closed. Separate managing directors were appointed for each industrial unit. In the interest of the country, eleven more industrial units were nationalized on 16th January,1972. The above mentioned actions of Bhutto’s government gave strength to economic stability and encouraged industrial development. 2. Nationalization of banks and insurance companies The big capitalist families had their own banks and insurance companies which were encouraging the capitalist system. The government was not gaining any considerable profit from these units. For the economic stability of the country, all insurance companies were nationalized and merged under the control of State Life Corporation on 19th March, 1972. All the scheduled banks were also taken over by the government of Pakistan on 1st January, 1974. Nationalization of banks and insurance companies proved very fruitful for the economic stability and prosperity of people of Pakistan. The profit gained was spent for the betterment of the public.

3. Labour reform Bhutto’s government announced the new labour policy on 10th February, 1972. The important points are as under: 1. The representatives of the labourers were included in the administrative committee which was responsible for running the affairs of the factory. Their representation was 20% of the total strength and they had the right to check the accounts and stores. 2. Annual bonus equal to one month’s salary was announced for labourers. Special bonuses were also announced in case the production increased. 3. The working time of the labourers was rescheduled. 48 working hours within a week were regulated instead of 54 hours. They would be given extra remuneration if they willingly worked overtime. 4. Every labourer would have the rights of old age pension, insurance and gratuity. Medical facilities under the social security scheme would be given to the labourers and it would be paid for by the owners. 5. Every labourer would be provided with residential and educational facility. Medical check-up would be mandatory. Free education up to matriculation of at least one child was the responsibility of the factory. 6. An Industrial Relations Commission was set up for the settlement of the disputes among the labourers through trade unions. Junior courts were set up in this respect so that labourers could have the right to take their cases to the labour courts. 7. A post of “Stewardship” was created who was responsible for settling differences between the mill owners and the labourers. 8. Mill owners were bound to give solid reasons before termination of a labourer for job security purpose so that unfair terminations could be avoided.

4. Agricultural reforms Agriculture is the profession of a majority of population in Pakistan. To save the farmers from exploitation, Bhutto’s government announced the following agricultural reforms:

1. The limit of land ownership irrigated by canals, was fixed up to 150 acres and land irrigated by natural rains was up to 300 acres. The land beyond these limits was confiscated and distributed among farmers and peasants. By March 1976, 1.5 million acres of land was distributed to the farmers.

2. The land purchased by Govt. servants during their services of two years after their retirement, was limited up to 100 acres. The surplus land, would be taken over by the Govt. The army officers were exempted from this policy.

3. No one except for educational institutions was allowed to cross this limit of land.

4. Only landlords would pay the land and water tax. The peasants would be exempted from it.

5. No extra land was allowed for livestock farms, stables and gardens.

6. All hunting grounds except for those with the historical background were taken over by the government.

7. The landlords were not allowed to evict the peasants one-sidedly. Only those peasants could be evicted who did not give apportionments or violated the rules.

8. Fragments of land were combined under a new scheme named consolidation of land.

9. Financial aid was given to Anjuman Imdade-Bahami to support mechanised farming in Pakistan, and its services and work were recognized.

10. For the purchase of agricultural machinery like tractors, loans were granted to the farmers and landlords on easy instalments.

Impact of Nationalization on Industry, Education, Commerce and Trade

1. Industry Here are the positive and negative impacts of nationalization of industry.

Positive impacts

1. Due to the Labour Reforms of 1972, the exploitation of the labourers was ended. Their salaries and other benefits were increased.

2. The industrial institutions began to pay all duties and taxes to the government, which increased the national income, and the country advanced towards progress.

3. The mill owners showed better attitude with the labourers. Strikes were gradually decreased.

4. The hold of 22 families in the industrial circle ended and the capitalist class was discouraged.

5. The control over the industrial units helped the government to maintain the prices of the industrial goods.

Negative impacts

1. Since the industries came under government control, the capitalists set up only few industries in Pakistan, due to which the industrial development slowed down. By taking the control of industrial units, the government expenditure increased tremendously.

2. The labour unions took advantage of the political freedom and went on strikes and demonstrations frequently for seeking increase in benefits, which greatly affected the performance of the units.

3. Political appointments of the labourers were made in the industrial units for nothing who were interested more in benefits than in work. So the speed of work became slow gradually.

4. The salaried staff did not shoulder their responsibilities seriously which promoted corruption in the country.

5. Due to government control, many low-production units were also running which increased the burden on the national treasury.

2. Education

Here are the positive and negative impacts of nationalization of education:

Positive impacts

1. The government of Mr. Bhutto nationalized many of the private educational institutions in the country in 1971. The salaries of the educational staff working in these institutions were very low. Due to nationalization, the financial benefits of the employees were brought on a par with those of the government educational institutions.

2. Students were given special concessions in transport fares which encouraged the poor parents for sending their children to the government schools. The student scholarships were also increased four times.

3. Many medical, engineering and professional universities were established for the better development of the country. Schools and colleges were upgraded which opened the door for higher education.

4. Training institutions for the school teachers were established in the entire country, and thousands of untrained teachers were given proper training. 5. Approval was given to set up Allama Iqbal Open University, which provided the students with an opportunity to study through correspondence and educational electronic media centers for adults were also opened.

Negative impacts

1. By nationalization of the private educational institutions the government had to pay the salaries of the staff from the national treasury. This financial burden increased the difficulties of the government.

2. The owners of the private institutions were unhappy for this nationalization and they started a struggle to get back their educational institutions.

3. By providing concession to the students in transport fares, tension developed between the transport owners and students.

4. The unlimited liberty made the students negligent in their educational activities which was a great concern for the parents.

5. The student unions were organized in the institutions through political parties, which were a great threat to peace and security.

3. Commerce and trade

Here are the positive and negative impacts of nationalization on commerce and trade:

Positive impacts

1. The nationalization of industrial units increased the production of the state industries.

2. The Bhutto government encouraged the import of machinery and raw material for industrial expansion. The trade balance of Pakistan improved and the country was advanced towards progress. Economic growth started in the country.

3. The export was increased. Even the vegetables and onions began to be exported.

4. Agricultural reforms increased farm produce which enhanced national and foreign trade.

Negative impacts

1. Inflation affected the salaried class the most. Devaluation of currency though increased export, but also increased the price of commodities.

2. The import of luxury goods increased. There was an increase in the import expense of machinery which affected the balance of payment.

3. Due to the burden on the national treasury, the secure reserves of foreign exchange started decreasing.

4. The increase in oil prices tumbled the trade balance of Pakistan in 1973.

Key Aspects of the Constitution of 1973

1. Preamble Like the constitutions of 1956 and 1962, the Objectives Resolution has been included in the preamble of the constitution of 1973 according to which sovereignty belongs to Allah Almighty. The people’s representatives would use their powers as a sacred trust, within the limits of the Quran and the Sunnah. It was made a regular part of the 1973 constitution through an amendment in 1985.

2. Written Constitution Like the previous constitutions it is also a written document which comprises 280 articles, 12 sections and 6 judicial records.

3. Federal Constitution Like the previous constitutions, Pakistan has been declared a federal state in the 1973 constitution. The federation of Pakistan consists of four provinces, Federal capital and adjoining tribal areas which are called FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas) and PATA (Provincially Administered Tribal Areas).

4. Semi-Rigid Constitution It is a semi-rigid constitution. The method of amendment is neither too difficult nor too easy. A two-thirds majority of the Parliament (National Assembly and Senate) is required to make an amendment in the constitution.

5. National Language Urdu has been declared the national language. In a period of 15 years arrangements will be made to implement the status of Urdu as the official language. During this period English will be used as the official language. This has not been possible so far.

6. Islamic Constitution Islam has been declared as the state religion in the constitution of Pakistan. It has been declared essential for the President and the Prime Minister to be Muslims. The official name of the state is the ‘Islamic Republic of Pakistan’. It encourages the practice of the Islamic mode of life among the citizens. Steps will be taken to abolish interest. Zakat, Auqaf and Ushr will be enforced.

7. Independent Judiciary A guarantee has been provided for an independent judiciary. The judges are paid handsome salaries and have job security. The judiciary has been separated from the Executive. The judges will perform their duties without any fear or pressure.

8. Parliamentary Constitution According to the Constitution of 1973, the National Assembly will have a tenure of five years. The parliamentary form of government was implemented in the country. The head of the country is the President, and the Prime Minister is the head of the government. The President is elected by the Parliament and the Provincial Assemblies, whereas the Prime Minister is elected by a majority in the National Assembly.

9. Supremacy of Constitution If any person abrogates the constitution or tries to abrogate it, he will be charged with high treason and prosecuted accordingly.

10. Constitutional Institutions The constitution of 1973 has set up several institutions like the Council for Common Interest, National Economic Council, National Finance Commission, Election Commission of Pakistan and Federal Ombudsman, etc. These institutions work within their limits and prefer national interest.

11. Bicameral Legislature The parliament will consist of two houses according to 1973 constitution. The Upper House is called the Senate and the Lower House is the National Assembly. The provinces have been given equal representation in Senate and it is a permanent House. Its tenure is of six years. It consists of 104 members. The National Assembly comprises of 342 members. The total number of the members of the Parliament (Majlis-e-Shoora) is 446.

12. Fundamental Rights The citizens have all the fundamental rights. The Parliament and Provincial Assemblies cannot make any law that negates any fundamental right.

General Zia-ul-Haq Era (1977-1988)

During the elections of 1977, all the political parties in the country had decided to fight against People’s Party. All the parties formed an alliance called ‘Pakistan National Alliance’. Maulana Mufti Mahmud was its Head. The National Assembly elections were held on 7th March, 1977 in which People’s Party won with a great majority. The National Alliance blamed it of rigging the polls and boycotted the provincial elections held on 10th March. The elections were declared invalid. A movement called ‘Nizam-e-Mustafa’ was started. When the situation was beyond control, Mr. Bhutto invited the National Alliance for negotiations. The negotiations were still in progress. When army’s Chief, Zia-ul-Haq, overthrew the Bhutto government and declared martial law on 5th July 1977. He ruled over the country for about 11 years from July 1977 to August 1988. General Zia-ulHaq was killed in an air crash on 17th August, 1988. The Chairman of Senate, Ghulam Ishaq Khan, took over as the Caretaker President of Pakistan.

Major Aspects of the Islamization Process During 1977-88

The major aspects of the Islamization process during 1977-1988 are as under:

1. The Setting up of Shariah Courts Shariat Benches were set up in all the High Courts on 10th Feb. 1979. Ulema were appointed as judges in them. Federal Shariat Courts instead of Shariat Benches were set up in 1980 which hears appeals against the decisions of their subservient courts and interprets Islam. The appeals against the decisions of the Federal Shariat Courts are heard by the Shariat Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court.

2. Implementing Shariat Ordinance The government passed Shariat Ordinance in 1979. All the matters of stealing, drinking, alcohol, rape and other crimes would be dealt with under Shariat Law.

3. Zakat and Ushr Ordinance According to this ordinance 2.5% of Zakat is deducted from the bank accounts of all the Muslims on the first of Ramazan every year. This Zakat money is distributed among the deserving people by the Zakat Councils. 10% ushr deduction from the annual agricultural produce was started in 1983.

4. Abolition of interest For abolition of interest, accounts were opened on the basis of profit and loss on 1st Jan. 1981 and all saving accounts were converted to PLS account from 1st July 1984.

5. Islamiat and Pakistan Studies as Compulsory Subjects The study of Islamiat and Pakistan Studies were made compulsory up to B.A. in all the educational institutions. This step was taken to harmonize the educational system with Islam.

6. Prayer arrangements Arrangements were made in all the educational institutions and government offices for offering of Zuhr prayers. Prayer committees were formed to attract the people to prayers.

7. Ehtram-e- Ramazan Ordinance Ehtaram-e-Ramazan Ordinance was passed. The people not observing the sanctity of the month of Ramazan could be jailed for three months and fined 500 rupees.

8. Religious Schools In Zia’s regime, many religious schools were looked after by the government and they were given annual grants. Their degrees were considered equal to M.A.

9. Compulsory study of Arabic The study of the Arabic language was made compulsory from Grade 6 to Grade 8.

10. The International Islamic University The International Islamic University in Islamabad was started in 1981 for Islamic learning and law research.

11. The setting up of a Shariat faculty A shariat faculty was set up in the Quaid-e-Azam University in Islamabad which would provide teaching of Hadith, Fiqh and Islamic law.

The Era of Government of Muhammad Khan Junejo (1985-1988)

General Zia-ul-Haq amended 1973 Constitution from parliamentary to a presidential system. The President took complete powers and the powers of the Parliament were curtailed. Non-party elections were held for the National Assembly in 1985. The first session of the National Assembly was called on 23rd March, 1985. General Zia-ul-Haq took the oath as the President for the next five years, and Muhammad Khan Junejo took the oath as the Prime Minister. Following are the important events of Muhammad Khan Junejo era. Lifting of martial law General Zia-ul-Haq’s martial law had completed eight years in 1985. After becoming Prime Minister, Muhammad Khan Junejo declared that martial law should be lifted. Then the Parliament and Provincial Assemblies passed bills to lift it which was done on 30th Dec. 1985. Muhammad Khan Junejo as President of the Muslim League All the non-party members of the National Assembly formed an official parliamentary group in January 1986 which was named as the ‘Pakistan Muslim League’. Muhammad Khan Junejo was elected its president. He started to expand Muslim League membership in the entire country. The Provincial Chief Ministers became Muslim League’s provincial presidents and its offices were opened all over Pakistan. The Muslim League was organized as a political party and its primary units started enrolment at the lower level. Foreign tours The lifting of martial law and the restoration of democracy was welcomed by the foreign world. Muhammad Khan Junejo made successful tours of Turkey, Germany and the United States of America in 1986. Different agreements of mutual interest were signed during these tours. Development programmes of Muhammad Khan Junejo’s government Muhammad Khan Junejo’s modesty, honesty and national spirit were very much liked by the public. The 7- marla housing scheme, 5- point development programme and plans to raise the literacy rate were appreciated, which played an important role for the development of the country.

Ojhri Camp Disaster A sudden fire broke out in an arms depot located between Rawalpindi and Islamabad in 1988. Many citizens were killed in this disaster. After hectic efforts of one week, it was brought under control. The Prime Minister was on a tour of Sindh, and the President on a tour of Kuwait. Both returned immediately to Islamabad. The Prime Minister formed an investigation committee and its report was presented to President Zia-ul-Haq. The dismissal of the Junejo government Due to some political changes, differences developed between the President and the Prime Minister in 1988. After returning from foreign tour, the Prime Minister called a press conference on 29th May, 1988 at the airport and answered the questions of the news reporters. On the same day, the President declared dismissal of the Junejo Government and dissolution of all assemblies in a press conference held in Army House. This is how three years’ regime of Muhammad Khan Junejo ended.

Afghan Jihad, Refugee Problem and Their Impact on Pakistani Society

The invasion by Russian forces into Afghanistan in 1979 created a new challenge for Pakistan. General Zia-ul-Haq adopted a firm policy with great confidence and courage, and stood against the intervention of the Russian forces. The beginning of jihad Afghan nation bravely, stood against the Russian attack, and started jihad. The moral support of the Government of Pakistan raised the morale of Afghan Mujahideen. The Mujahideen inflicted heavy defeats on Russian forces in every field. Russia was completely demoralized and became helpless in 1986, but the jihad was continued. The continuous defeats disappointed the Russians tremendously. Geneva Accord America and Russia signed an accord in April 1988 in Geneva. The Prime Minister of Pakistan, Muhammad Khan Junejo also participated and signed it. Russia accepted its defeat and withdrew its forces from Afghanistan on 15th February, 1989. This was the end of Afghan Jihad.

The impact on Pakistani society

The migration of Afghan refugees to Pakistan during Russian attack had far-reaching effects on Pakistani society. More than 30 lakh Afghan refugees migrated to Pakistan. Pakistan gave shelter to the refugees and looked after them properly out of Islamic brotherhood and human sympathy. The services of General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq are praiseworthy in Afghan jihad. Pakistan was appreciated internationally for the successful Afghan policy.

Benazir Bhutto’s First Government Era (Dec. 1988 to Aug. 1990)

General elections were held in 1988 in Pakistan. People’s Party’s leader Benazir Bhutto was elected Pakistan’s and Islamic world’s first woman Prime Minister. The following are the important events of Benazir Bhutto’s first term: 1. The dissolution of the Balochistan Assembly The Chief Minister of Balochistan, Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali, had just not gained the vote of confidence from the Balochistan Assembly in 1988 that the Benazir Bhutto government dismissed it. The Balochistan High Court took up the case, declared it as unconstitutional and restored the house. 2. Presidential elections Ghulam Ishaq Khan won the presidential elections against Nawabzada Nasrullah Khan in Dec 1988 and took the oath for the office. 3. Pakistan rejoins Commonwealth After separation from the Commonwealth in 1972, Pakistan rejoined it in 1989. 4. Foreign Policy The Govt. of Benazir Bhutto adopted a ‘no-confrontation policy’ with India. When Rajiv Gandhi visited Pakistan to participate in the fourth SAARC Conference, Benazir Bhutto joined hands for establishing good relations with him. 5. Social Welfare The government had launched the Peoples Works Programme for development and social welfare of the country. For providing employment to the public, a department, Benazir Placement Bureau, was set up. Thousands of people got employment through it.

The dismissal of the Benazir Bhutto government President Ghulam Ishaq Khan using the powers under Section 58-2-B of the constitution dismissed the Benazir Bhutto government on the charges of corruption and dissolved the National Assembly on 6th August, 1990. Her first government lasted for about 20 months.

Benazir Bhutto’s Second Government Era (Oct. 1993 to Nov. 1996)

Benazir Bhutto was elected Prime Minister of Pakistan for the second time in October 1993. The following are the important events of the second term. 1. Development Programmes During Benazir Bhutto’s second term, construction of Karachi Flyover Bridge and Lahore Bypass was started. 2. Plans for farmers and women Benazir Bhutto set up Kissan Bank for providing loans to farmers and launched the National Tractor Scheme. Social and health policies were framed for women. Women police stations and courts were set up for providing legal facilities to this class. 3. 8th 5 -Year Plan The government launched the Eighth 5-Year Plan which resulted in rapid development and prosperity of the country. 4. Foreign visits and the Kashmir issue Mrs. Bhutto made successful visits to Iran and Turkey. She gained moral support of these countries on the Kashmir issue. Many agreements of cooperation in different fields were signed. 5. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa government The government of the Chief Minister, Pir Sabir Shah of the Muslim League and the Assambly were dissolved in 1994 in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Aftab Ahmad Sherpao of the People’s Party was elected as Chief Minister. The dismissal of the government of Benazir Bhutto Differences on different matters were developed between President Mr. Farooq Ahmed Leghari and Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto. He dismissed the government on charges of corruption by using the powers under 58-2-B of the constitution. Benazir Bhutto ruled over the country for about 3 years this time.

Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif’s Government

Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif enjoyed two terms for ruling the country: First government term (November 1990 to July 1993) Second government term (February 1997 to October 1999) Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif’s first government Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif of Pakistan Muslim League took the oath as Prime Minister of the country on November 1990. The important events of his first term are as under: 1. Announcement of Agricultural Policy Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif government announced Agricultural Policy for the betterment of the farmers in 1991. 10 crore rupees were allocated for this policy. 2. Privatization Commission The government constituted Privatization Commission in 1991. Official banks and financial institutions were reformed accordingly. Banks in private sector were encouraged. Some banks and other institutions were sold out through this Privatization Commission which created a positive impact on the national economy. 3. Agreement among provinces on water distribution A moot dispute was going on the water distribution of the River Indus among the four provinces of Pakistan. Through the efforts of the government, an agreement was signed among the provinces and the dispute of water was resolved forever. 4. Baitul Maal The government of Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif established Baitul Maal in 1992 which provided financial help and aid for the poor. 5. Foreign Policy The government brought many positive changes in its foreign policy. Peace was brought in Afghanistan through negotiation with different Afghan leaders. Efforts were continued for patching up among different groups. India was officially invited for resolving Kashmir issue, but these negotiations were not successful. When extremists in India demolished Babri Mosque in 1992, National Assembly of Pakistan passed a condemnation resolution. The government of Pakistan made its best efforts for establishing good relations with America and the rest of the world. Pakistan adopted a defensive policy at the American invasion of Iraq.

6. National plans The government started national schemes like National Construction Programme, SelfEmployment Scheme, Motorway Project and Yellow Cab Scheme for betterment of people which proved to be quite successful. The dismissal of Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif government President Ghulam Ishaq Khan dismissed Nawaz Sharif’s government under section 582-B of the constitution in April 1993. He had ruled for about years. Mr. Balakh Sher Mazari was appointed as caretaker Prime Minister. The Muslim League filed an appeal against this presidential decision in the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court cancelled the presidential decision and restored Nawaz Sharif’s government. But differences between Ghulam Ishaq Khan and Nawaz Sharif got more tense. At last, Nawaz Sharif resigned as the Prime Minister of Pakistan and Ghulam Ishaq Khan resigned from the post of the President of Pakistan in July 1993. Moeen Qureshi was selected as caretaker Prime Minister and announced elections in the country. Second Term of Government of Mr. Nawaz Sharif New elections were conducted and Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif was again elected as PM in February 1997. Here are some important events of the government. 1. The resignations of Justice Sajjad Ali Shah and Farooq Ahmed Khan Leghari After one month, differences developed between Chief Justice of Pakistan, Sajjad Ali Shah, and Nawaz Govt. The confrontation was resolved through army intervention and Chief Justice had to resign from his office. President of Pakistan, Farooq Ahmed Khan Leghari, also resigned from the Presidency later on. 2. Justice (Retd) Rafiq Tarar elected as President of Pakistan Justice (Retd) Rafiq Tarar was elected as President against Aftab Shaban Mirani of People’s Party in Dec. 1997 and became the President of Pakistan. 3. ‘Retire debt, adorn the country’ scheme Economic condition of the country was not improving and the government had to take loans from the IMF for its budget. Nawaz Sharif started a scheme called ‘Retire debt, adorn the country’ and appealed to the nation to pay off the foreign loans. The nation welcomed this scheme and about 17 billion rupees were collected till June 1999 in this head.

4. Rights of vote to Pakistanis abroad The government gave the right to vote to Pakistanis living abroad which developed their interest towards Pakistan. 5. Restriction on floor crossing The government imposed restriction on party floor crossing by the members of the Assembly under 14th amendment of the 1973 constitution. Through this amendment the elected member of the Assembly was bound to give the vote of confidence only to their own party leader. Violator was to be expelled from the party. 6. Census of 1998 The census of the people was conducted in 1998. The population of the country reached over 13 crores according to this census. 7. The announcement of an education policy Syed Ghous Ali Shah, Federal Minister for Education announced the new educational policy in 1998, which was aimed at opening many new academic institutions. 8. Lahore-Islamabad Motorway The Lahore-Islamabad Motorway, one of the longest motorways of South Asia, was a great achievement of Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif. It was planned in his first term, but was completed in his second term. Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif himself inaugurated the Motorway in 1998. 9. The repeal of clause 58-2-B from the 1973 constitution Clause 58-2-B of the constitution which gave president the power to dissolve the National Assembly at any time, was removed from the 1973 constitution by Nawaz government with the support of the opposition through the 13th Amendment. 10. Atomic blasts The Nawaz government had shattered the dreams of superiority of India in the atomic field by doing atomic blasts on 28th May 1998. This made Pakistan the 7th atomic power of the world. 11. Lahore Declaration The Indian Prime Minister, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, visited Lahore by bus with a message of peace and goodwill. Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif welcomed him at Wagah Border. Both leaders announced many plans to normalize mutual relations. A joint communiqué was signed which was called ‘Lahore Declaration’.

12. The entry of the army into WAPDA WAPDA was handed over to army by the Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif goverment. to root out its corruption and to reduce load-shedding in 1999. This produced very encouraging results. 13. Kargil invasion In 1999, a war broke out between India and Pakistan on Kargil. Later, on intervention of the American President, Bill Clinton, both countries declared ceasefire. The removal of Nawaz Sharif Government General Parvez Musharraf removed the democratic government of Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif and took over the country on 12th October 1999. The ‘Plane Hijack Case’ was filed against Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif. He was sentenced to imprisonment and was declared unfit for any public post by a special court. On the intervention of Saudi Government, he was sent in exile to Saudi Arabia.

Pakistan as a Nuclear Power

When Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto took over powers in 1971, he declared that atomic energy is necessary for our progress and defence but we want atomic energy not for war or destruction but for our prosperity and development. The first atomic plant of Pakistan was set up in Karachi in 1971 but it was not fulfilling the country’s needs. For the development of the growing industries in Pakistan, it was very essential to obtain more atomic energy. When India did its first atomic blast in the Rajasthan Desert in 1974, it became an atomic power. With this blast, the balance of power in South Asia was disturbed; therefore, Pakistan had to make its efforts to become an atomic power. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto wished to obtain an atomic re-processing plant from France. An agreement was signed between the two countries for a plant in 1976. Out of the total cost of 40 crore dollars for the plant, the first instalment of 10 crore dollars was paid but India, Russia, America and other atomic powers did not appreciate this. They pressurized France, due to which France refused to provide the plant to Pakistan. France refused to provide the plant to Pakistan. General Zia-ul-Haq’s government continued this programme under Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan’s supervision. He announced that Pakistan had obtained the technique of uranium enrichment in 1984. On this announcement the enemies of Pakistan started their propaganda movement against Pakistan’s nuclear programme. It was blamed that Pakistan could use the atomic weapons through American F-16 and French Aircraft Mirage which had access to big cities of India. Dr. Qadeer Khan claimed in 1989 that Pakistan had gained the capability to build an atomic bomb or device.

India and Pakistan had kept their programmes secret from each other, but with its atomic blast in 1974, it was exposed to the world that India was an atomic power. America was completely silent but when Pakistan proceeded in this field, the Pressler Amendment was enforced rapidly. When the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) came to power in India in 1998, it conducted five atomic blasts in Pokhran (Rajasthan) on 11th May, 1998 to establish its atomic supremacy in the region. President Bill Clinton forced Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif not to reply the Indian aggression and threatened to curtail economic aid to Pakistan if it conducted blasts in return, but Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif refused to accept Bill Clinton’s threat. In spite of international pressure, and the government demonstrated courage on the demand of the public and conducted 7 blasts in the Chaghi Hills of Balochistan in reply to the five blasts of India. Pakistan became the world’s seventh and the Islamic world’s first atomic power. As soon as ‘Allah-o-Akbar’ sounded over the Chaghi Hills, the Pakistani nation was excited with pride and the enemy’s arrogance dashed to ground. 28th May was declared Youme-Takbeer. The nation celebrates this day with full honour and enthusiasm every year.

The Causes of the Military Take-over of 12th October, 1999

1. On 12 October 1999, the Chief of Army Staff General Pervaz Musharraf suspended the constitution, overthrew the government of Prime Minister Mian Muhammad Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif and dissolved the national and provincial assemblies. The Prime Minister Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif’s decision of appointing General Zia-ud-Din, Chief of Army Staff was also declared unconstitutional.

2. Later on, Supreme Court, in a decision, gave General Pervez Musharraf’s government a period of three years so he could bring constitutional and social reforms in the country.

The System of Devolution of Powers Initiated by Pervez Musharraf with Particular Emphasis on Local SelfGovernment

Local Government A government by the local people who formulate and implement domestic policies at the local level is called the local self-government. Historical background The following is the historical background of the system of the local government in Pakistan. Viceroy Lord Rippon’s system of local governments Viceroy Lord Rippon enforced the Local Government system through an act in 1884 in South Asia and established local boards at district and tehsil levels. Their responsibility was to solve the problems of local people, but these institutions failed to solve the problems because they had neither the powers nor the financial resources. President Ayub Khan’s Basic Democracies System President Ayub Khan issued an order for Basic Democracies on 27th October, 1959 which introduced a system of local government in Pakistan. It was called ‘Basic Democracy’ system. Its main aim was to transfer the power at the lower level through their own representatives. This system could not bring any substantial changes and came to an end. The system of local governments was not even successful in the Bhutto regime. General Zia-ul-Haq’s Local Government System When Zia-ul Haq came to power, the Local Government system was enforced again and the elections of Local Governments were conducted twice. This system was established on a firm basis and it kept on progressing step by step but the majority of people could not get reasonable benefit from this system. Local Government Plan 2000 General Pervez Musharraf promised to bring visible changes in the system of local governments soon after coming to power on Oct.12, 1999. The power was to be transferred to the lower level of the public. The local government in Pakistan was divided into three parts – union government, tehsil government and district government. 1. Union Government A Union Government comprises a Nazim, Naib Nazim, Union Council and Union Administration. People elect 13 members of a Union Council among which are: one Nazim, one Naib Nazim, four male General Councillors, four female General Councillors, two male Farmers/Labour Councillors, two female Farmers/Labour Councillors and one Minority Councillor. The duties of a Union Council include the security arrangements within its boundary, making the annual development programme for the area, imposing taxes at the local level and solving the criminal and civil cases of small nature, and land and family disputes. 2. Tehsil Government The tehsil government comprises Tehsil Nazim, Naib Tehsil Nazim, Tehsil Council and Tehsil Administration. The educational qualifications of the Tehsil Nazim and the Naib Nazim shell be at least matric. They will be elected by all the union councillors present in Tehsil. The Tehsil Nazim is the administrative head of the tehsil government. The Naib Nazims of all the Union Councils of the Tehsil are included in the Tehsil council. 33% of the seats in the Tehsil Council are for women, 5% seats will be for farmers and labourers and 5% seats will be reserved for the minorities. The Tehsil Nazim will be the head of the Tehsil Government. A Tehsil Municipal Officer (TMO) will work under the Tehsil Nazim. Four Tehsil Officers (TOs) will work under the Tehsil Municipal Officer and supervise the affairs of the different departments. These departments include finance, budget and accounts, record of land revenue, planning, rural and urban development, municipal coordination and its stages etc. 3. District Government The district government comprises Nazim, Naib Nazim, Council and Administration. The head of the district government is the District Nazim. In one district, the Nazims of all the Union Councils are included in the District Council. Out of the total seats in a district council, 33% seats are for women, 5% seats for farmers and labourers and 5% seats are reserved for the minorities. From one district, all the elected union councillors, Nazims and Naib Nazims together elect the District Nazim and Naib Nazim. The District Nazim is the head of all the administrative powers. The district police and administration are answerable to the District Nazim. The District Nazim provides political leadership and is responsible for the development and prosperity of his district. The administration of the district is run by the District Coordination Officer (D.C.O). The District administration is comprised of different departments and the head of every department is called the Executive District Officer (EDO). The district administration frames the rules and regulations for the district. After getting the approval of the District Nazim and the District Council for the different programmes and budget, it gets them implemented in the district. The district government also has the powers to impose tax. It can increase or decrease them.

2002 Elections and Restoration of Democracy Condition of B.A. (graduation) Elections were held in October 2002. General Pervez Musharraf took the oath as the President of the country for the next five years in November 2002. For the first time in Pakistan, it was declared mandatory for a candidate to be a graduate. Absolute authority of General Pervez Musharraf According to the Legal Framework Order (LFO), General Pervez Musharraf was given unlimited powers. He could appoint governors, three heads of the armed forces, Chief Election Commissioner and the Chairman of Federal Public Service Commission. He could dissolve the assemblies. LFO as a cause of dispute and elections 2008 LFO became the main cause of dispute between the government and the opposition. Prime Minister Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali made utmost efforts for reconciliation between the government and the opposition. All the opposition parties A.R.D. published a white paper in 2003 on the price hike, unemployment, waiving off the loans of favourite people and failure of Musharraf government on internal and external fronts. The National Assembly again elected General Pervez Musharraf on 1st Jan 2004. He announced elections in January 2008 with the condition that he would be elected as President for the next five years before dissolution of the present assembly. General Pervez Musharraf was re-elected as President for the next five years. Elections were held in February, 2008. The People’s Party and The Muslim League (N) gained the majority in these elections, but The Muslim League (Q) failed miserably. Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani was elected as Prime Minister of Pakistan. General Musharraf’s Concept of Enlightenment
After coming to power, General Pervaz Musharraf introduced a concept of enlightened, inspired by the ideas of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. In view of this concept, he made some changes in the educational curriculum which were opposed by the religious scholars. Restrictions on newspapers and magazines were lifted. Due to which, many private television channels started their operations. For the first time in the history of Pakistan a female doctor, Shamshad Akhtar, was appointed the Governor of the State Bank of Pakistan. Women were appointed, for the first time, fighter pilots in the Air Force by the government. Women were allowed to contest on general seats despite having reserved seats in the national and provincial assemblies. Women were given small loans without guarantees on easy terms by the banks. Women were appointed traffic wardens in main cities of Punjab. A direct commission was made possible for the women in the army.

Privatisation and Industrialization during the Musharraf era

Before Pervez Musharraf, Benazir Bhutto and Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif started privatisation process. Its aim was to end poverty and the payment of foreign loans. In Musharraf and Shaukat Aziz’s government, the income from privatization was spent on the payment of foreign loans and social welfare. The Habib Bank was sold for only Rs. 22 billion and the UBL was sold for only 13 billion rupees in Dec. 2004. The Privatisation Commission sold 26% shares of the PTCL to Etisalaat, a Dubai company, Pak-Arab Fertilizer of Mirpur Mathelo for 8 billion, the Pak-Arab Fertilizers of Multan for 13 billion, and Pak American Fertilizers, the largest government factory, was sold for 16 billion rupees. The Musharraf and Shaukat Aziz’s government earned 2.5 billion dollars in a year through privatisation.

Setting up of new Industries

During Musharraf’s government, many new industries were set up in the country. Car assembly plant industry, motorcycle assembly plant industry, sugar industry, chemical industries, industries for making goods of basic needs, electrical equipment industries, cement industries and steel making industry are worth mentioning. Impact of privatisation Positive impacts:

● The government income increases by privatisation.

● The load on the government to run the institutions is reduced or comes to zero.

● Private institutions are encouraged and investment in the country increases.

● Quality goods are produced in factories and the work capacity of the employees is increased. Negative impacts:

● Unemployment increases and employees lose their jobs.

● The country’s capital decreases and the personal capital increases.

● The cost of goods increases.

Privatization creates unrest and insecurity among the employees working in an institution.

Economic Reforms Introduced by Pervez Musharraf and Shaukat Aziz

1. Increase in GDP and setting up of new industries Pervez Musharraf and Shaukat Aziz paid special attention to Gross Domestic Product (GDP). There was a 7% increase in it. They made economic policies and set up new industries in the country. 2. Incentives of Investment The overseas Pakistanis were advised to make investment in different fields of their country for future development. The foreign investors were also advised to make investments in Pakistan. 22% increase in the investment was achieved. 3. Reduction in country’s deficit Before the Musharraf period the country’s deficit was 7%, which was brought down to 4.5%. He took many positive measures to reduce poverty from 32% to 20%. 4. Obtaining energy In order to get continuous supply of electricity and obtain energy, plans were made to increase hydel power production, and change thermal plants to gas and coal plants.


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