Chapter No. 4 POLLUTANTS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON ENVIRONMENT

POLLUTANTS : The environment we live in is not as clean as it should be. Various natural and human activities contaminate it with harmful substances. Dust storms, rotting of vegetation, volcanic eruption, etc., are the natural phenomena which release dust Read More …

Chapter No. 3 BIOTECHNOLOGY

Biotechnology: Application of knowledge in the areas like engineering and medicines, etc., is called technology. The technology in which living things are used in different ways to help and benefit human beings is called biotechnology. Microorganisms are used in making Read More …

Chapter No. 7 Foreign Relations of Pakistan

Foreign Relations of Pakistan: Pakistan is situated in the south of the continent of Asia; it is a country of fertile land, mountains, rivers and beautiful valleys. It shares its eastern border with India, northern border with China, and western Read More …

Chapter 6 History of Pakistan – II

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Era: 20th December 1971 to 5th July 1977 Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto took over the office of President of Pakistan as well as Civil Martial Law Administrator on 20th December 1971. He was the first civilian Martial Law Read More …

Chapter No. 18 Pharmacology

Pharmacology is the study of drug composition, properties and medical applications. The sources of drugs are also studied in pharmacology. Clinical pharmacology was present in the Middle Ages. Early pharmacologists focused on natural substances, mainly plant extracts. Pharmacology developed in Read More …

Chapter No. 17 Biotechnology

Humans have been making use of biotechnology since they discovered farming. This use extended from the planting of seeds to the control of plant growth and crop production. Animal breeding is also a form of biotechnology. Cross-pollination of plants and Read More …

Chapter No. 16 Man and His Environment

Every organism has its specific surrounding or environment with which it continuously interacts and remains fully adapted. An organism’s environment is the sum of physical (abiotic) and biological (biotic) conditions which influence that organism. The study of the interrelationship between Read More …