Foreign Relations of Pakistan: Pakistan is situated in the south of the continent of Asia; it is a country of fertile land, mountains, rivers and beautiful valleys. It shares its eastern border with India, northern border with China, and western border with Afghanistan and Iran whereas to its south is the Arabian Sea.
Objectives of Pakistan’s Foreign Policy
When a country establishes relations with other countries, it has to abide by some fundamental principles and objectives. The policy of a state in this regard is called the foreign policy. Following are the objectives of the foreign policy of Pakistan:
1. Territorial sovereignty and security The main objective of Pakistan’s foreign policy is the security of its borders, freedom and sovereignty. When Pakistan emerged on the world map, it was necessary for it to make appropriate arrangements for the safety and security. Therefore, Pakistan always gave importance to the national security in its relations with foreign countries. National security is always the fundamental objective in Pakistan’s foreign policy. Pakistan respects the territorial sovereignty of other countries and expects the same from them. India conducted atomic blasts, not keeping in view the national safety of Pakistan. Pakistan, in return, also conducted atomic blasts. It was a show of strength which gave an evidence of Pakistan being an atomic power. Pakistan follows the United Nations Charter and is a part of the world’s struggle against the use of force.
2. Ideological objectives The ideology and foreign policy of Pakistan are linked together. Pakistan is an ideological nation with the Islamic base. The main objective of Pakistan’s foreign policy is to protect the ideological borders of Pakistan. The stability of Pakistan is linked to the protection of Pakistan’s ideology. It can protect its ideology only by establishing better relations with the Islamic countries. Therefore, Pakistan has always maintained good relations with them. In its every constitution, closer relations with the Islamic countries have always been stressed. Pakistan played an important role in setting up the organisations of the Islamic Conference and the Economic Cooperation. Wherever the Muslims faced some problems, Pakistan helped them as much as possible.Conflicts in Palestine, Cyprus, Bosnia, Kashmir, Ethiopia, Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria are the burning issues of the Muslim world.
3. Development in financial and economic trends For the defence of a country, economic aspect has remarkable effects on foreign policy of a country. Pakistan is a developing country and it wants to progress economically. Pakistan is wishing to have cordial relations with all those countries which can help Pakistan financially. Pakistan has made important changes in its foreign policy, keeping in view the recent economic trends. It has allowed free trade, free economy and privatization. The main reason for close contacts with the Western countries is economic aid which has made Pakistan closer to America and the Western World.
4. Cultural enrichment: Different cultural factors have always had an effect on Pakistan’s foreign policy. The Pakistani nation also has the right to protect and show its culture like other countries. Its culture reflects the Islamic values like tolerance, respect for humanity, modesty, self respect and courage. Pakistan wants to develop strong relations with those countries which give an opportunity to promote and preserve Pakistani culture. Cultural relations are further developing with Islamic states, and cultural troupes are exchanged among them. Pakistani dresses and other items are liked in other countries. This paves the way to strengthen relations with other states on cultural level.
Pakistan’s Relations with Neighbouring Countries
1. People’s Republic of China is a great neighbour of Pakistan, whose borders touch the northern regions of Pakistan. When it was declared a republic in 1949, Pakistan immediately recognized it. The Pak-China friendly relations started and since 1954-55, both the countries have been close friends with each other. Their friendship is based on the sincere emotions of the people. A sincere harmony developed between the two nations. China has always proved itself to be a dependable friend in war and peace.
2. Pakistan extended full support to China for making it a permanent member of the Security Council.
3. Pakistan provided every possible political, diplomatic and moral support to China during its war with India at NEFA (North-East Frontier Agency) and Ladakh in 1962.
4. China morally, politically, strategically and financially supported Pakistan in its war against India in 1965 and 1971.
5. After the atomic blast by India in 1974, China and Pakistan adopted a similar nuclear policy. Both emphasized that the Indian Ocean should be declared a nuclear-free zone. Both countries signed the nuclear pact in 1986 and China extended financial and technical cooperation.
6. The 900 km long Silk Route (Karakoram Highway) was constructed with the help of China which became a symbol and glowing example of Pak-China friendship.
7. Many defence agreements were signed between China and Pakistan according to which China helped Pakistan in the construction of Kamra Complex and Pakistan Wah Ordnance Factory. It gave Rs. 273 million for the construction of the Heavy Industry Electrical Complex in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. In 2013, the Prime Minister of Pakistan visited China. During this tour, different agreements in many departments between both countries were signed including the power sector.
1. The main dispute between Pakistan and India is the Kashmir issue, and without its solution the relations cannot be improved. Better ties can be established between both countries in all the fields if it is resolved. Pakistan has always showed a positive attitude but India is not serious about resolving this issue.
2. For resolving the water issue, the Indus Water Treaty was signed between India and Pakistan in 1960. India is still violating this treaty. The ‘Simla Pact’ was signed by both the leaders after the war of 1971 whereby they agreed that their differences would be resolved through discussions.
3. Both countries made efforts to increase cooperation through South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) since 1985 but that produced no satisfactory result. The Prime Ministers of Pakistan and India got a chance to meet at the SAARC conference in 1988 and a pact was signed to restrict each other from attacking their nuclear sites.
4. Some betterment of relationship appeared in Pakistan and India In 1990. Mutual trade and travelling facilities were increased. No effort can be fruitful without the solution of Kashmir issue amicably. Pakistan is firm in its stand that the Kashmir issue should be settled according to the resolutions of the United Nations and the wishes of the helpless Kashmiris.
5. Agra Conference was held between the President of Pakistan and the Prime Minister of India from the 14th to 17th July 2001. The three days dialogues in this conference proved unsuccessful.
6. In SAARC conference organized in January 2004 in Islamabad, the talks were held between the President of Pakistan and Indian Prime Minister, and many agreements were settled. In 2013, during the General Assembly’s session of United Nations, a meeting was also held between both the Prime Ministers and vowed to continue bilateral dialogues.
1. Iran was the first country to recognize Pakistan in 1947. Iran and Pakistan are Islamic, Asian and neighbouring countries. Both countries are closely linked with historical, religious and cultural relations.
2. The prime minister of Pakistan visited Iran in 1949. Shah of Iran also made a visit in return to Pakistan in 1950 and trading contacts were established. With the trade and cultural agreements, Iran and Pakistan felt it necessary to cooperate in the field of defence. Both the countries developed very good relations with America and considered Russian Federation a great threat. Pakistan, Iran, Turkey, Iraq and Britain signed a defence treaty called Baghdad Pact. America was supporting this pact. After Revolution in 1958, Iraq withdrew and it was named as CENTO. This defence treaty brought Pakistan and Iran very close to each other.
Iran always gave full support to Pakistan on Kashmir issue and praised its stance. It has always supported the right of self determination of the people of Kashmir. It has always openly opposed the atrocities of Indian Army against Kashmiri freedom fighters.
4. Iran stood with Pakistan in 1965 and 1971 wars. Its political, moral, economic and military aid was very encouraging for Pakistan. Iran did not recognize Bangladesh until Pakistan recognized it.
5. Shah of Iran, Turkish President and President of Pakistan met in 1964 and Istanbul Treaty was signed. This treaty brought these Islamic countries very close together. The treaty helped the formation of RCD (Regional Cooperation Development). The RCD countries decided to complete many joint ventures. The organisation now has been converted into Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO) with ten members.
6. After the Islamic revolution in 1979, Pakistan had recognised the new government in Iran and extended cooperation in every field.
7. The President of Pakistan visited Iran in 2000. It was decided to enhance cooperation in different fields. In 2013, the President of Pakistan visited Iran again. Pak-Iran gas pipeline project was reviewed during this tour. By its completion, Pakistan’s energy crisis can be solved adequately. Pak-Afghan relations
1. Afghanistan is our neighbouring Islamic country. Both have old religious, historical, cultural, racial and geographical relations.
2. Pakistan had no pleasant relations with Afghanistan in the very beginning. Afghanistan recognized Pakistan very late and diplomatic relations were developed in February 1948.
3. Foreign Secretary Government of India, Sir Henry Mortimer Durand, and Afghan King, Ameer Abdul Rahman, singed an agreement for the permanent solution of the border issue in 1893. It finalized the border lines. Afghanistan accepted the Durand Line as its international border, but later on disputed the treaty.
4. Afghanistan is a land-locked country. It does not have access to the sea. Afghanistan was facing difficulty in establishing trade relations with other countries. Keeping this situation in view, Pakistan provided transit facilities to Afghanistan. Permission was accorded to transport goods from and to the seaport of Karachi.
5. Relations were strained again after an army revolution in Afghanistan in April 1978 and the Dec. 1979 Russian invasion. Afghan government used the Russian army to crush the opposition. Thirty lakh Afghans left their country and sought refuge in Pakistan. Pakistan gave them refuge for humanity and Islamic spirit. 6. The tragedy of the World Trade Center on 11th Sept. 2001, provided America an excuse for attacking Afghanistan. The Taliban government was removed and a new government was appointed. Pakistan extended cooperation to the new government and gave financial aid for the reconstruction of Afghanistan with a promise to keep up this support. After the departure of foreign armed troops from Afghanistan, it is expected good relations between the two countries.
Genesis and Development of Kashmir Issue
Kashmir has been a contentious issue between Pakistan and India. When Pakistan come to existence, 80% of the population of Kashmir were Muslims .They desired to annex Kashmir with Pakistan but the Dogra Rajah, Hari Singh, was against Pakistan and Muslims. He made coalition with India cunningly and permitted Indian forces to enter into Kashmir. He provided an opportunity to India to take control. The Kashmiri Muslims started jihad and got 1/3 areas of the valley freed from the Indian forces. The Kashmir issue in the Security Council When the Indian forces failed to take back the areas occupied by the Kashmiri freedom fighters, India took this issue to the Security Council and adopted this stand that Kashmir had already been integrated with India. It further blamed that Pakistan had attacked Kashmir, which meant Pakistan had attacked India. Pakistan challenged the accession of Kashmir to India, and apprised the Security Council about the actual position. It stressed that the Hindu Raja did not have the right to decide the future of Kashmir, rather Kashmiris should have this right. The Security Council directed for a ceasefire in Kashmir through a resolution. The ceasefire came into effect on 1st January 1949. Decision on Kashmir’s future The Security Council accepted Pakistan’s stand and decided that Kashmir’s future would be according to the will of the people of the state. A plebiscite would be carried out under the supervision of the United Nations. This resolution of the Security Council was accepted by both Pakistan and India. The war ended. For stopping the violations of ceasefire, United Nations appointed its representative to monitor the ceasefire line. India’s delaying tactics When these initial problems were settled, it was expected that the United Nations would make arrangements for a plebiscite under its supervision in Kashmir. The United Nations made some efforts for this settlement but India was not sincere from the beginning. It created hindrances for a free plebiscite in Kashmir. India expected that the Kashmiri people would surely vote in favour of Pakistan. It adopted different delaying tactics and deployed a large number of forces there. While declaring Kashmir as an integral part of India, it flatly refused to have a plebiscite. The Kashmir issue is still unresolved.
Pakistan’s Relations with O.I.C. Countries
Pakistan is always willing for the unity of Islamic world and it has played an important role for creating harmony and cooperation among them. It has supported the movements started for the cause of Muslims and has openly favoured its stand to United Nations. The tragedy of Aqsa Mosque fire in 1969 gathered representatives of all the Muslim countries of the world in Rabat, a city in Morocco. Pakistan suggested the formation of a permanent organisation to be named Islamic Conference, which was supported by all the Muslim countries and the Organisation of Islamic Conference was established. Its head office is in Jeddah. Pakistan played an important role in drafting the manifesto of the Organisation of Islamic Conference. The following is a brief description of Pakistan’s relations with Islamic countries:
Pakistan and Saudi Arabia
1. The mutual relations between Pakistan and Saudi Arabia are based on the solid basis of brotherhood because the holy places of the Muslims are located in Saudi Arabia where thousands of Pakistanis visit to perform Haj. The foreign policies of both countries emphasize about the unity of the Muslim world. Before the birth of Pakistan, Saudi Arabia supported the Pakistan Movement and recognized it immediately.
2. Pakistan extended technical cooperation to Saudi Arabia and provided the valuable services to it for defence and modernization of its army. Shah Faisal constructed Faisal Mosque and International Islamic University in Islamabad with huge money.
3. Saudi Arabia helped Pakistan in Indo-Pak wars of 1965 and 1971, financially, and supported its stance.
4. Saudi Arabia stood with Pakistan on the Kashmir issue. Shah Faisal fully cooperated with Pakistan for holding the Second Islamic Conference in 1974.
5. Saudi Arabia supported Pakistan’s stand on the Afghanistan issue. Pakistan not only supported Saudi Arabia’s stand but also helped it in 1991 in the Middle East crisis. For the protection of holy places, Pakistan sent its troops to Saudi Arabia.
6. A Pak-Saudi Economic Commission was set up in 1998 in Riyadh, which executed work in 155 fields in Pakistan and provided financial aid for their completion. Saudi Arabia is very close to Pakistan nowadays and their friendship is deepening day by day.
Pakistan and Turkey
1. Turkey recognized Pakistan immediately after its birth and extended complete support to it on its stand on Kashmir issue.
2. Turkey supplied Pakistan with arms and ammunition in 1965 Indo-Pak war. When Turkish President visited Pakistan in 1966, Pakistan thanked him for their help in the war.
3. Pakistan and Turkey organized Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) in July 1964 with mutual understanding. This organization was reactivated in 1985 and now is called Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO) with ten members. Financial cooperation is going on between Pakistan and Turkey. The construction companies of both the countries have been starting joint programmes of development. The military relations are strong. The leaders are exchanging visits.
4. Due to the dialogues between Ministerial Commissions of Pakistan and Turkey, different agreements were signed in 2002 in Islamabad. In the earthquake of 2005 which affected the large areas of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir, Turkey aided Pakistan open-heartedly. In 2013, Turkey cooperated to inaugurate Lahore Metro Bus Service in Lahore. Also in 2013, the Prime Minister of Pakistan visited Turkey and the both countries stressed to further increase in bilateral relations. In the present time, both countries are cooperating in different sectors including agriculture, transport, automobiles, communication and construction.
Pakistan’s Relations with Egypt, Malaysia and United Arab Emirates
Pakistan also has developed friendly good relations with Egypt, Libya, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. Thousands of Pakistanis are working in these countries. They are providing huge support for the economy of Pakistan. Pakistan has extremely good relations with its brotherly Islamic country, Egypt. Pakistan during Egypt Israel war in 1973 extended full support at diplomatic level. Pakistan also played an important role for making Egypt the member of Organisation of Islamic Countries. Pakistan has friendly ties with Libya. It had played an important role in Libya independence. Libya not only extended diplomatic support to Pakistan in Indo Pak war in 1971 but provided military and financial aid as well. Pakistan has also good relations with the Islamic country, Malaysia. Malaysia holds a very special position in the Muslim World, economically as well as in the field of trade. Cooperation is going on in science, technology and other fields between Pakistan and Malaysia. United Arab Emirates has also provided financial aid to Pakistan in every field, and many projects have been completed due to its help. Indonesia, Jordan, Iraq, Sudan and all other Islamic countries also have friendly relations with Pakistan.
Pakistan’s Relations with Central Asian Countries The Central Asian Countries include Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzistan. They all became independent after the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991. Pakistan took deep interest in resolving the problems of these countries. These countries are situated far from sea, When these countries became independent, their foreign exchange was nominal. Pakistan started trade with them for enhancing their foreign exchange. Their requirements were fulfilled. Pakistan signed many agreements and helped them to boost their industrial sector. Following are the details of Pakistan’s ties with these countries:
1. Azerbaijan Pakistan established relations with Azerbaijan in 1992. An agreement was signed between the two countries in the field of electronics. Many students from Azerbaijan are studying in the universities of Pakistan and other educational institutions. Azerbaijan is rich in oil and gas. Pakistan signed an agreement to help exploring oil in 2001. The exchange of delegations between Pakistan and Azerbaijan happens occasionally.
2. Uzbekistan Prime Ministers of Pakistan, Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif and Benazir Bhutto, visited Uzbekistan. The tomb of Imam Bukhari (RA) is situated in the city of Bokhara. The Muslims have a great respect for him. Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif donated 50,000/- dollars for the repair of Imam Bukhari’s (RA) tomb during his visit there. The President of this country has also visited Pakistan in 1992. The office of Uzbekistan Airways has been established in Karachi. This country is also rich in oil, gas and coal. An agreement has already been signed between the two countries to provide gas to Pakistan through a pipeline.
3. Tajikistan Tajikistan is the closest Central Asian country to Pakistan. Its capital, Dushanbe is located at a distance of 500 km from Islamabad. President of Tajikistan visited Pakistan in 1994. This country has abundant electricity. Pakistan has signed an agreement with this country for getting electricity through hydel power.
4. Turkmenistan The President of Turkmenistan had also visited Pakistan in 1994. Many pacts have been signed between two the countries for development in different fields. Pakistan exports food items to this country. An agreement has already been signed in 1996 to lay a gas pipeline from Turkmenistan to Quetta.
5. Kazakhstan This is the biggest country among the Central Asian countries. The Prime Minister of Pakistan, Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, visited Kazakhstan in 1990 and signed different agreements for promoting trade. The President of this country also visited Pakistan in 1992. Pakistan has signed many agreements with Kazakhstan for providing a cement plant and for setting up different industries there.
6. Kyrgyzstan There are vast reserves of uranium in Kyrgyzstan. Pakistan is an atomic power which has a deep interest in furthering ties with this country. Prime Minister of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto visited Kyrgyzstan. An agreement was signed between both countries for trading facilities through road.
Pakistan’s Relations with SAARC Countries
SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) is an organisation for regional cooperation of the South Asian countries. The idea for its formation was presented by the ex-Prime Minister of Bangladesh, Mr. Zia-ur-Rahman, in 1980, but this organisation was established in 1985. The basic aim of this organisation was to increase joint cooperation among the member countries. The following countries are included in this organisation: 1 Pakistan 2 India 3 Bangladesh 4 Sri Lanka 5 Nepal 6 Maldives 7 Bhutan 8 Afghanistan Following are the main objectives of this organization: 1. To enhance and strengthen collective self-reliance between the South Asian countries. 2. To encourage active collaboration and mutual assistance among the member countries in economic, cultural, technical and scientific fields. 3. To strengthen cooperation among themselves on matters of common interest at international forums. 4. To promote joint cooperation, the organisation agreed on eleven fields including telecommunication, meteorology, transport, ship-building, tourism, agricultural research, and promotion of joint ventures in scientific, technical and educational fields. 5. Many protocols were signed among the SAARC countries and many advantages were gained on regional basis, For example, holding of SAARC Games, as a result of which mutual cooperation is being promoted by the participation of the players of the eight countries in these games every year. 6. Agreements were signed for nuclear installations and air services.
1. Pakistan and Bangladesh
1. Pakistan recognized Bangladesh in Lahore in 1974, on the occasion of the Second Islamic Heads Conference.
2. Different agreements were signed in July 1976, in Dhaka, between the two countries for improvement in the fields of ship-building, banking and telecommunication.
3. The first Meeting of Heads of SAARC was held in 1985, and the Seventh Meeting of Heads of SAARC was held in 1993, in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh where many steps were taken to promote trade among the SAARC countries.
4. An agreement was signed between Pakistan and Bangladesh in 1993, according to which Pakistan would provide 300 tractors to Bangladesh in the future two years.
5. The 13th Conference of Heads of SAARC was held in Dhaka in 2005 in which Prime Minister of Bangladesh, Khaleda Zia, was elected as the President of SAARC for the next year. In this meeting, Pakistan laid stress on resolving matters of dispute and declared that the solution of the Kashmir issue was undeniable for the regional future and growth.
2. Pakistan and Sri Lanka
1. Sri Lanka is an island country surrounded by sea from all sides. Its main source of income is fishing. Tea, coconut and rubber is in plenty in Sri Lanka. It exports these goods and earns foreign exchange. The Sinhalese and Tamil people inhabit Sri Lanka. Both are different from each other. Tamil and Sinhalese languages are spoken. The major religions here are Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam and Christianity.
2. The 6th SAARC Heads Conference was held in 1991 in Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka. Different proposals were discussed for controlling the growing trends of terrorism and violence in Asia. The Prime Minister of Pakistan Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif gave idea for establishing permanent peace in the region. The UN Charter’s restrictions and stopping the use of atomic weapons were also discussed. The 10th SAARC Heads Conference was held in 1998 in Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka in which the SAARC countries stressed for eradicating poverty and promoting joint collaboration. In 2010, Pakistan and Sri Lanka signed an agreement of free trade in which both countries agreed to increase the mutual trade volume.
3. Pakistan and Nepal
1. Nepal is a mountainous country. Its main source of income is tourism. The world’s highest mountain peak, Mount Everest, is located in Nepal. The major religions here are Buddhism and Hinduism.
2. The Third SAARC Heads Conference was held in 1987, in Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal. In this conference, it was clear that all other six countries, except India, held the same ideas and thinking. All were also agreed to combat the food crisis in the SAARC countries.
3. The Eleventh SAARC Conference was held in 2002, in Kathmandu, in this conference, a resolution was passed for economic and social development, eradicating poverty and terrorism, cooperation in health, environment and communication.
4. Pakistan and Maldives
1. Maldives consists of 1192 islands in the Indian Ocean. The major profession of the people is fishing. Malé is its capital. Conch and seashells are collected and exported to other countries.
2. The Fifth SAARC Conference was held in 1990 in Malé, the capital of Maldives. The President of Maldives, Mamoon Abdul Qayyum, played the host. The Pakistani delegation was headed by the Prime Minister, Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif. The withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait and imposing restriction on smuggling was emphasized.
5. Pakistan and Bhutan
1. Bhutan is a mountainous country. Its capital is Thimphu, which is situated on the bank of the River Thimphu. The people here belong to the Mongol Tribe. There are many forests in Bhutan. People earn their living by woodcutting and logging. Most of its population live in valleys. Raising sheep and goats is an important profession. The official language of Bhutan is Dzongkha.
2. With reference to the SAARC, the close ties of Pakistan and Bhutan have been strengthened.
3. The final plan of SAARC’s formation was prepared in Thimphu (Bhutan) in 1985.
Pakistan’s Relations with USA, UK, EU, Russia and Japan
1. Pak-America relations 1. The American ambassador presented his credentials to Quaid-e-Azam in 1948. He gave the assurance of mutual friendship. and said that we only expect friendship and goodwill from all the independent nations. 2. On the invitation of the American President Truman, the Pakistani Prime Minister, Liaquat Ali Khan, visited America in 1950. Liaquat Ali Khan, through his speeches in America, explained the objectives of the creation of Pakistan and the needs for its development. This visit was successful. America extended military and financial help to Pakistan, which was used in its development and construction. 3. An agreement of cooperation was signed between the representatives of America and Pakistan in 1955, according to which the President of Pakistan, Muhammad Ayub Khan, made an official five-day visit to America in July 1961. He had discussions with President Kennedy and he explained Pakistan’s stand on the Kashmir issue to him. A joint communique was issued. America assured Pakistan of assistance for its Second 5 year Plan. It also assured that all its allies would be convinced to do the same. America repeated its promise for military and economic aid. The international border between Afghanistan and Pakistan (Durand Line) was recognized. 4. Russia entered its forces into Afghanistan and occupied Afghanistan in 1979. Pakistan and America openly opposed the Russian occupation. Pakistan, America and other Western countries helped Afghan people. Due to the PakAmerican joint efforts, Russia could not win this war and it had to withdraw its forces from Afghanistan. 5. On the invitation of President Reagan, General Zia-ul-Haq visited America in December 1982. Both countries agreed for setting up a ministers’ commission and the first instalment of F-16 aircraft was sent to Pakistan. India and Russia, in response, also signed an agreement in 1983. Russia provided the most modern weapons, tanks and anti-tank aircraft to India. 6. The American Senate passed a bill in 1985, which discontinued aid to the countries that developer nuclear weapons. American President exempted Pakistan from this restriction for a year and sanctioned aid. Pakistan was exempted from this amendment in future and was receiving aid every year. When General Zia-ulHaq visited New York to participate in the 40th Anniversary Celebrations of the United Nations in October 1985, he also met the American President. 7. The Prime Minister of Pakistan, Muhammad Khan Junejo, visited America in 1986. He had discussions with the President, and other senior officials. An agreement was signed between them for the transfer of sensitive technology to Pakistan with a condition that this technology should not be used for the nuclear programme. 8. America sanctioned an aid of 3.2 billion dollars to Pakistan for the next six years in March 1986,. A great part of this aid was reserved for military arms and the markup and interest rate charged was very low. The Prime Minister of Pakistan, Benazir Bhutto, visited America at the end of 1995. She was known as the most popular personality and brought more improvement in the Pak-American ties. 9. The originator and stimulator of the Pressler Amendment, Larry Presser, introduced a constitutional amendment through which aid of all kinds to Pakistan was stopped. The amendment required Pakistan to stop atomic proliferation. Bush Administration, however, gave permission to sell arms worth 30 crore dollars to Pakistan and partially lifted the sanctions on economic aid to Pakistan. 10. President Bill Clinton approved the Brown Amendment on 26th Jan. 1996, which paved the way for military and economic aid to Pakistan. This amendment was welcomed in Pakistan. American Congress, on 15th January 1998, supported the return of money to Pakistan if F-16 aircraft were not delivered to it. 11. The American Army General, John B, accompanied by his delegation, came to visit Pakistan for two days in 2004. He met President of Pakistan and exchanged views on continuing operation in Afghanistan. America signed an agreement with Pakistan with a condition that it would give aid of 270 million dollars to Pakistan, which would be spent on different development projects. 12. After the terrorist attacks in America on 11th September, 2001 (9/11), America attacked Afghanistan. Pakistan supported America in this war, but, as a result, Pakistan itself is facing terrorism. America, for its own aims, repeatedly talked of maintaining long-lasting and cordial relations with Pakistan. In last thirteen years, America has given loans of billions of dollars to Pakistan. However, it has never given aid for any big project of long-lasting economic and defence benefits to Pakistan.
2. Pak-Russian relations
1. Diplomatic relations were established between both the countries in May 1948, and, the next year, Mr. Shoaib Qureshi was appointed the Pakistani ambassador to Russia. Even before the appointment of the ambassadors, on behalf of the Russian Prime Minister, Marshal Joseph Stalin, an invitation to visit Russia had been sent to Pakistani Prime Minister, Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan, in June 1949. The month of August was suggested for this visit; however, he ignored this and went on a visit to America. The same year, in July, a trade delegation from Russia came to Pakistan and this delegation’s visit too was almost a failure because there was no agreement decided between both the countries. After the Russian invitation, the American President, Truman, also invited the Pakistani Prime Minister for a visit which was immediately accepted. As a consequence of this step, a gulf was created between Russia and Pakistan, which has not been filled till today. Liaquat Ali Khan visited America in 1950 and Russia declared Pakistan a biased country. 2. In March 1956, in the Russian capital, Moscow, the Pakistani Consulate held a function to celebrate ‘Pakistan Day’. The Russian foreign minister Molotov also participated and offered to help Pakistan set up a steel rerolling mill the same way it had helped India set up a steel rerolling mill. 3. Both countries signed an agreement in March 1961, according to which Russia had to explore for oil in Pakistan. Russia also accepted that it would send its experts to Pakistan for five years to search for gas. As a result of this agreement, it helped to lessen the tension created previously to quite on extent. After two years, air service began between the two countries. In 1964, both the countries agreed for technical and scientific cooperation and, so, relations between the two countries started improving to some extent. 4. In 1965, the President of Pakistan, Field Marshal Muhammad Ayub Khan, visited Russia. Three pacts were signed between the two countries according to which the amount of the previous trade was doubled. Russia announced that it would give a loan of Rs.15 crore to Rs.25 crore. According to a cultural agreement, an exchange of different art experts, students, writers and artistes and in addition radio and TV programmes was agreed upon. Russia also announced aid for the third five year plan. 5. In January 1966, after the Indo-Pak war of 1965, Russia brokered an agreement between India and Pakistan in Tashkent and helped resolve the issues of the return of prisoners and occupied areas. 6. After East Pakistan became Bangladesh, a new era began. In 1971, when Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto came into power, he felt that despite the CENTO and SEATO treaties, America had not helped Pakistan, so he announced that Pakistan had withdrawn from those treaties. 7. According to an agreement between both the countries in 1973, Russia gave a generator and important equipment for a thermal electricity plant. The same year, the planned steel mill was given its final touches in Karachi. The mill construction started in December 1973. 8. In 1988, to resolve the Afghan issue, an agreement was decided which was named the Geneva Pact. In addition to Pakistan and Afghanistan, America and Russia also signed it. According to this pact, Russia decided to withdraw its forces within 9 months; therefore, by the middle of 1989, the whole force was withdrawn from Afghanistan. Now, cooperation between both countries is ongoing in different fields.
3. Pak-Britain relations
1. Pakistan and Britain have been shoulder to shoulder in different fields of life. When Pakistan became independent, it was made a member of the Commonwealth. When the treaty of CENTO was decided in 1955, both Britain and Pakistan were included.
2. Britain gave a loan of Rs.13 crore to Pakistan in 1959. In 1961, according to the Indus Water Treaty, Britain bore some of the expenditure for alternate arrangements for the river water. For the second 5 year plan of Pakistan, Britain gave 45.5 crore rupees. Other than this in 1961, to buy the railway wagons, around 4 crore rupees aid was given. Next year, two more loans were given from which the first was 9 crore and the second was of 13 crore rupees. This amount was given for buying a ship and buses and constructing a power station near Hyderabad. In 1963, for industrial loans and investment, another loan of 13 crore rupees was given. In 1966, an agreement was signed between Pakistan and Britain, according to which, on extremely soft conditions, Pakistan was given a loan of 40 lakh pounds.
3. When Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s government was formed in Pakistan In 1971, he announced withdrawal from the Commonwealth in 1972.
4. The Prime Minister of Pakistan, Muhammad Khan Junejo, went on a tour of Britain in 1987. He said that the British help and cooperation for Pakistan was praiseworthy. Prime Minister Junejo visited various cities of Britain and invited the British industrialists to invest in Pakistan. He assured that the foreign industrialists would get full security.
5. The Prime Minister of Pakistan, Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto, also toured Britain in 1989. During her a week-long tour, the nuclear programme of Pakistan and Indo-Pak relations, besides the Afghanistan issue, were also discussed. In 1989, Pakistan once again was made a member of the Commonwealth in spite of Indian opposition.
6. In 2001, after the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in America, Pakistan became an ally of America and Britain in the fight against terrorism. In 2002, both countries mutually agreed to cooperate with each other to end terrorism and extremism. 7. In 2003, General Pervez Musharraf reached London and met the British Prime Minister, Tony Blair. During the meeting with President Pervez Musharraf, the British Prime Minister fully assured Pakistan of its cooperation in resolving the Kashmir issue. In 2005, the Commonwealth meeting was held in a European democratic country Malta in which the Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz represented Pakistan. At this moment, he clarified, “Our participation in the war against terrorism and fundamentalism proves that Pakistan is a peace-loving country.” In the earthquake of 2005 which affected the large areas of Pakistan and Azad Kashmir, England and the other members of commonwealth aided Pakistan with open heart. In the WORLD DONORS CONFERENCE held in Islamabad, the commonwealth announced further aid and expressed their warm existence with Pakistan in this critical moment. After the elections of 18th February 2008, a democratic government came into power in Pakistan. In 2010, the President of Pakistan Asif Ali Zardari visited UK and met with English Prime Minister, David Cameron. During this meeting, English Prime Minister admitted the long-lasting relationships between the two countries because they were based on mutual-interests. In 2011, during his visit in Pakistan, English Prime Minister said that the enemy of Pakistan is the enemy of UK and his friend is ours also. The two countries have strong relationships in all departments including trade, education and culture. 8. In 2014, the Prime Ministers of Pakistan and UK met in London. During this meeting, both the Prime Ministers analysed the bilateral relationships in different departments including trade and defence, and resolved to strengthen these relationships further. Now there is an ongoing exchange of political, trade, cultural and educational delegations between the two countries.
4. Pakistan and the European Union relations The European Union was formed according to a mutual concept of ‘One Europe’ visualized by the European countries. It is an organization of 28 countries.
1. Relations between Pakistan and the European Community were established in 1976. Till to date, the European Union has spent more than 500 million euros on different projects and programmes in Pakistan.
2. In the 1980s, the European community started many social welfare projects in Pakistan which included the construction of roads and bridges, a fish seaport facility, providing electricity in villages, betterment of livestock, education, vocational training, rural development, etc.
3. In the 1990s, the European Union had started several projects of human resources development and the eradication of pollution according to the policy of the government of Pakistan. Their results were quite encouraging. Other than this, it gave monetary aid to different NGOs for population welfare, eradication of child labour, increase in income, less drug usage and providing health facilities in villages.
4. In 2004, the European Union with the World Trade Organisation (WTO) started a programme on technical assistance to expand trade in Pakistan (Trade-related Technical Assistance Programme).
5. For Pakistan’s economic development, the European Union fixed 75 million euros for 2002-06. It gave 50 million euros as aid for being an ally against terrorism from 2001. 6. The European Union announced a donation of 93.6 million euros for the help of the people affected by the earthquake in Pakistan’s Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir on 8th October, 2005. To develop the Pakistan and European Union relations according to the modern demands, the Pak-European Conference (EU-Pakistani Summit) was held on 17th June, 2009 in Brussels, the capital of Belgium. The President of Pakistan also participated in this conference. European Union and Pakistan are significant trading partners. In 2012, the trade volume between Pakistan and European Union was 802 billions euro.
1. The country of Japan comprises of four large and several small islands located to the east of Asia. It is located in the far east. Therefore, Japan is called the ‘land of the rising sun’. After the Second World War, Japan has made industrial development rapidly. Tokyo is Japan’s capital. Tokyo is an ancient historical city. Its present importance is because of the industries established in the previous century.
2. There are many factories in Japan to prepare machinery, cloth, goods of daily use and foods and drinks. There are countless heavy and small units to prepare electric goods, radios, television, cameras, watches and miscellaneous equipment. The heavy industries include steel industry, shipping industry and oil refineries. These factories are mostly situated on the seashore.
3. Japan is a developed Asian country. Pakistan imports cars and electronic goods from Japan. Japan has made investments in many projects in Pakistan including improvement in education. Japan holds a prominent position as a buyer of Pakistani fish.
4. Japan gave aid to Pakistan many times after the 9/11 tragedy for playing a prominent role in the fight against extremism.
The United Nations After the First World War, the League of Nations was established in 1919, but this organisation lost its usefulness after the Second World War. Seeing the aftermath of the war, the human race considered it necessary to create a new organisation to promote mutual cooperation and to put a stop to future wars. The heads of states of the big countries held many meetings. At last, a conference was held in 1945 in San Francisco, America, and it was decided to create the United Nations. The representatives of 50 states approved the charter of the United Nations on 25th June 1945. This organisation came into being on 24th October, 1945. The objectives for establishing United Nations
1. Establishing international peace.
2. Economic and social cooperation.
3. Provision of justice
4. Resolving human problems.
Organs of the United Nations
The following are the six basic organs of the United Nations:
1 General Assembly
2 Security Council
3 Trusteeship Council
4 Economic and Social Council
5 International Court of Justice
1. General Assembly The General Assembly is the biggest organ of the United Nations. The representatives of all the member countries participate in the General Assembly session. Its session is held every year in September. Its responsibilities include electing the non-permanent members of the Security Council, giving membership to new states and terminating the membership of some states, approving the budget of the United Nations and taking measures to establish world peace, etc.
2. Security Council This is United Nation’s second and very important organ. This organ is considered as the administrative wing of the United Nations. The total number of members of the Security Council is 15. From among them, America, Russia, Britain, France and People’s Republic of China are 5 permanent members. The Security Council sessions are held after short intervals. The President of the Council is elected every month. The decisions of the Security Council are made after the consent of at least 9 members out of 15. But it is necessary that these 9 members should include the 5 permanent members. If a permanent member gives a negative opinion, then the decision cannot be made. This right of a permanent member is called ‘veto’. Its main duties include establishing peace, resolving international disputes, membership of new countries and recommendation of its cancellation, electing the judges of the International Court of Justice and sending recommendations to the General Assembly for the election of the General Secretary.
3. Trusteeship Council This organ of the United Nations made arrangements to improve the condition of the ruined nations after the Second World War. It acted for the fulfilment of the cultural, educational, economic, social and other needs of these regions as a supervisor. This supervision would continue till these nations became capable of attaining independence. Now this organ has lost its usefulness.
4. Economic and Social Council There is a total of 54 members in this council. They are elected by the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council together. The tenure of each member is 3 years. 1/3 of the members retire each year and new members are elected in their place. The council meetings are held thrice a year. Other than these, special meetings can be called too. The members of the Economic and Social Council elect a president from among themselves. Its responsibilities include raising the standard of living of man, trying for economic and social development, collaboration in the educational, scientific and cultural fields, taking measures to eradicate unemployment, poverty and disease etc. 5. International Court of Justice An important organ of the United Nations is the International Court of Justice. There is a total of 15 judges in the court who belong to different countries and who are elected for a period of 9 years by General Assembly and Security Council together. More than one judge cannot be taken from a country. The court makes its decision according to the opinion of the majority of the present members. Its responsibilities include resolving disputes among states according to the manifesto of the United Nations. In addition, hearing the cases on all topics, interpreting and explaining international laws and giving legal advice to the different organs of the United Nations are also its duties.
6. Secretariat This is the record office of the United Nations and is situated in New York. The head of the Secretariat is called the Secretary General. Many secretaries are also elected for his assistance. The General Assembly and the Security Council elect the Secretary General for five years. Its main responsibility is to keep the proceedings of the meetings of all the organs and documentation in its safe-keeping.
Pakistan’s Contribution Towards Peace-keeping in the World
Pakistan’s contribution towards peace-keeping in the world is mentioned below:
1. Pakistan has always respected the charter of the United Nations and wants the conflicts to be resolved in a peaceful manner. It supports the United Nations in its efforts towards arms reduction.
2. When the United Nations adopted the policy of social boycott of South Africa and Rhodesia (presently Zimbabwe) because of racism in these countries, Pakistan acted upon it and cut off diplomatic relations with these countries.
3. The Indo-Pak war was in September 1965, so after the intervention of the United Nations, Pakistan accepted the ceasefire.
4. Pakistan has always supported the oppressed nations’ right of self-determination. That is why it supports the people of Kashmir and Palestine.
5. Pakistan has always supported the international control on nuclear energy.
6. For establishing peace, at the behest of the United Nations, Pakistan sent its army to Congo and several other countries in the world.
7. Pakistan presented the issue of the independence of Indonesia in the United Nations and urged United Nations to open its doors to all peaceful countries.
8. Pakistan helped Sri Lanka, Nepal, Kampuchea and Libya become members of the United Nations.
9. Pakistan supported the independence of Algeria and made full efforts for independence and sovereignty of Tunisia and Morocco.
10. Pakistan supported Egypt’s stand on the Suez Canal issue.
11. It presented the resolution in the General Assembly to free Jerusalem (Al-Quds/ Baitulmaqdas) from Israel’s occupation and had it passed with a majority.
12. Pakistan is playing a very effective role against terrorism and extremism in the world.