Biology 10 biotechnology Chapter No. 17

Chapter 17     BIOTECHNOLOGY

Q.1. outline biotechnology and describe its importance.

Ans.Biotechnology is outlined because the use of living organisms in processes for the manufacture of helpful product or for services to grouping. Fermentation and alternative such processes, that ar supported the natural capabilities of organisms, ar unremarkably thought of as previous biotechnology.

Scope and Importance of Biotechnology

In recent years, biotechnology is growing as a separate science. it’s attracted the eye of the many intellectuals from numerous fields like agriculture, medicine, biological science and chemical science. The scope for biotechnology is thus wide that it’s tough to acknowledge the boundaries.

The following ar some areas of the appliance of biotechnology.

Biotechnology within the Field of medication

i) within the field of medication, biotechnologists synthesized hormone and antiviral agent (antiviral proteins) from bacterium and free purchasable.
ii) an oversized variety of vaccines and antibodies,; human endocrine and alternative medicines/have additionally been created.
Hi) numerous enzymes ar being synthesized for medicative moreover as industrial use.

iv) factor medical care (treatment through genes) has become necessary in recent years,
v) Biotechnology is additionally abundant helpful in medicine,
vi) The study of deoxyribonucleic acid helps within the identification of criminals.
Biotechnology within the field of food and Agriculture

i) hard foods (e.g. pickles, yogurt), malted milk foods.(e.g. fine-grained milk: a combination of barley, flour and whole, milk), numerous vitamins and dairy farm product ar created by victimisation microorganisms.
ii) Wine and brewage ar created in nutrient trade.
iii) Biotechnology has additionally revolutionized analysis activities within the space of agriculture. Transgenic (organisms with changed genetic set-up) . plants ar being developed; during which fascinating characteristics ar gift e.g. a lot of yields and resistance against diseases, insects and herbicides.

iv) Transgenic goats, chicken, cows offer a lot of food and milk etc.
v) several animals like mice, goats, cows etc. are created transgenic to urge medicines through their milk, blood, urine.

Biotechnology and atmosphere

i) Biotechnology is additionally getting used for handling environmental problems, pollution management.
ii) Development of renewable sources for energy.
iii) Restoration of degraded lands and diversity conservation.

iv) microorganism enzymes ar wont to treat waste material water to purify.
v) Microbes ar being developed to be used as biopesticides, biofertiliz biosensors etc.
vi) Such transgenic microorganisms also are used for the recovery of meto cleansing of spilled oils and for several alternative functions.
Fears also are being expressed regarding the advances in biotechnology in terms i unleash of harmful organisms developed through recombinant DMA technology.

Q.2. Name the somebody United Nations agency created Dolly(sheep)?

. Ans:In Scotland, in 1997, Associate in Nursing embryologist LAN Ian Wilmut created a sheep (Dolly) fronvf the body cell of Associate in Nursing adult sheep.

Q.3 What is fashionable biotechnology? in short describe the history of recent | biotechnology.

Ans Human began victimisation microorganisms as early as 4000 B.C. for creating wine, vinegar, cheese, yogurt etc. a number of these processes became a neighborhood of each home that we have a tendency to could even hesitate to referthem as biotechnology.

Modern Biotechnology( Genetic Engineering)

Genetic engineering i.e. the bogus synthesis, modification, removal, addition and repair of the genetic material (DMA) is taken into account as fashionable biotechnology. it’s done to change the characteristics of organisms.

The work on {genetic engineering|gene-splicing|recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid technology|biotechnology} started in 1944 once it had been proved that DNA carries the genetic info. Scientists isolated the enzymes of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis so ready deoxyribonucleic acid outside cells. In 1970s, they were ready to cut and paste the deoxyribonucleic acid of organisms. In 1978, scientists ready human hormone by inserting the hormone factor in bacterium. Human endocrine was additionally synthesized in bacterium. In 1990, the Human ordering Project was launched to map all the genes in human cell. the entire map of human ordering was revealed in 2002.

Q.4 however would you outline fermentation with regard to biotechnology? additionally describe the categories of sugar fermentation.

Ans: FERMENTATION

Fermentation is that the method during which there’s incomplete oxidoreduction of aldohexose. Fermentation has been within the data of man since centuries, however it had been believed that it’s strictly a natural action.

In 1857, Pastures convinced the scientific community that each one fermentations ar the results of microbic activity. He showed that fermentation is usually aldohexose

accompanied by the event of microorganisms. There ar several types of fermentation and every kind may be a characteristic of explicit microbic cluster.

Carbohydrate Fermentation

Fermentation is assessed within the terms of the product fashioned. The initial steps of sugar fermentation ar similar to those of respiration. the method begins with g.lycolysis, during which the aldohexose, molecule is broken into 2

molecules of acid completely different microorganis ms precede the urther reaction in numerous ways; it ends up in the ” formation of varied product from acid.

Lactic acid

OR

Other Organic acids

Types of Carbohydrate Fermentation

There ar 2 basic varieties of sugar fermentation.

Alcoholic Fermentation (by yeast)
This fermentation is meted out by many sorts of yeast like yeast. This method is sort of necessary and is employed to provide bread, beer, wine and distilled spirits. during this method,-carbon oxide is aloof from acid. The product i.e. aldehyde is then reduced to ethyl alcohol. The dioxide created throughout this fermentation causes the increase of the bread. Figure 17.1

Lactic Acid Fermentation (by bacteria)
In this method, pyruvic is reduced to carboxylic acid. it’s meted out by several bacterium e.g. streptococci and lots of eubacteria species. it’s quite

Lactic acid fermentation

important in dairy farm trade wherever it’s used for spoilage milk and additionally for production of varied varieties of cheese. Figure 17.2

Q.5. Describe the role of fermentation in biotechnology. OR Write down the applications of fermentation.

Arts: Fermentation in Biotechnology

In starting, the that means of fermentation method was the utilization of microorganisms for the assembly of food (cheese, yogurt, hard pickles and sausages, soy sauce), beverages (beers, wines) and spirits. However, in biotechnology the term “fermentation” means that the assembly of any product by the culture of micro-organisms.

Application of Fermentation

In fermentation growth of organisms is obtained for the assembly of desired product of business price. historically, solely food and nutrient product were created by victimisation fermentation. currently several alternative product e.g. industrial chemicals also are being created.

a) hard Foods
Fermentation usually makes the food a lot of nourishing, a lot of light and tastier. It additionally tends to preserve the food, lowering the requirement for refrigeration.

The following teams ar enclosed within the hard foods.

i) Cereal products: Bread is that the commonest kind of hard cereal product. Wheat dough is hard by S. cerevisiae with some carboxylic acid bacterium.
ii) dairy farm product: Cheese and yoghourt ar necessary fermentation products. Cheese is made once a milk supermolecule is coagulated. This happens once the acid created by carboxylic acid bacterium reacts with milk supermolecule. yoghourt is formed from milk by completely different carboxylic acid bacterium.
iii) Fruit and vegetable products: Fermentation is sometimes used, beside salt and acid, to preserve pickle, fruits and vegetables.

iv) nutrient Products: brewage is created from cereal grains that are malted milk, dried and ground into fine powder. Fermentation of the powder is finished by yeast. This method breaks the aldohexose gift in powder into acid so into ethyl alcohol. Grapes is directly hard by yeasts to wine.
b) Industrial product
The following are the necessary industrial product created through the method of fermentation.

 

Products

 

Microorganisms used

 

Some uses

 

Formic acid

 

Aspergillus

 

Used   in   textile  dyeing,   leather  treatment electroplating, rubber manufacture

 

Ethanol

 

Saccharomyces

 

Used as solvent; used in the production of vinegar and beverages

 

Glycerol

 

Saccharomyces

 

Used as solvent; used in the production of plastics,   cosmetics   and   soaps;   used   in printing; used as sweetener

 

Acrylic acid

 

Bacillus

 

Used in the production of plastic

 

Q.6.     Name any two Industrial products made by fermentation. Also describe their uses in the industry.

Ans:   The following are the two important industrial products produced through the process of fermentation. .

Products

 

Microorganisms used

 

Some uses

 

Formic acid

 

Aspergjllus

 

Used    in    textile    dyeing,     leather    treatment electroplating, rubber manufacture

 

Ethanol

 

Saccharomyces

 

Used as solvent; used in the production of vinegar and beverages

 

Q.7. What square measure the merchandise of the 2 varieties of sugar fermentation?

Ans: The merchandise of the sugar fermentation square measure as follows.

1) Alcoholic Fermentation: the merchandise of alcoholic fermentation is ethanal that then reduced to ethyl alcohol. –

2) carboxylic acid Fermentation: the merchandise of carboxylic acid fermentation is llbtic acid.

Q.8.What is fermenter? What square measure the 2 varieties of fermentation administered in fermenters?

Ans:Fermenter

The fermenter constitutes the center of any industrial fermentation method.

Fermenter could be a device that gives optimum setting to microorganisms to grow into a biomass, so they will move with a substrate, forming the merchandise. Fermentation is administered in fermenters, within the following 2 ways:

Batch Fermentation

In this method, the tank of fermenter is crammed with the raw materials to be hard. The temperature and pH for microbic fermentation is correctly adjusted, and alimentary supplements square measure supplemental. All the fabric is steam sterilized. The pure culture of microorganisms is supplemental to fermenter from a separate vessel. Fermentation return and once the right time the contents of fermenter square measure taken out. Fermenter is clean and therefore the method is recurrent. Thus, fermentation could be a discontinuous method divided into batches. Figure 17.3

Continuous Fermentation

In this method, the substrate is supplemental to fermenter unceasingly at a set rate. This maintains the microorganisms in growth part. Fermentation merchandise square measure taken out unceasingly. the planning and arrangements for continuous fermentation square measure additional complicated. Figure 17.4

Q.9. Write down the benefits of victimization fermenters.

Ans. blessings of victimization Fermenters

I) for every biotechnological method, the setting provided to the organisms should be monitored and controlled. Such a controlled setting is provided by fermenters.
ii) A fermenters optimizes the expansion of the organisms by dominant several factors like nutrients, oxygen, growth inhibitors, pH and temperature.
iii) A fermenter could hold many thousand litres of the expansion medium. So, fermenters permit the assembly of materials in bulk quantities. large amounts of medicines, insulin, human somatotrophin, and different proteins square measure being created in fermenters and this production proves abundant cheap,

Q.10.Give associate degree example however biotechnology helps for higher setting. Ans. Applications of Biotechnology for higher setting

i) Biotechnology is additionally being employed for handling environmental problems, like pollution management.
ii) Development of renewable sources for energy.
:ii) Restoration of degraded lands and variety conservation.

iv) microorganism enzymes square measure accustomed treat waste product water to purify.
v) Microbes square measure being developed to be used as biopesticides, biofertilizers, biosensors etc.
vi) Such transgenic microorganisms are used for the recovery of metals, cleansing of spilled oils and for several different functions.
Q.11.What is genetic engineering? What square measure the objectives of it?

Ans. gene-splicing

Genetic engineering or. desoxyribonucleic acid technology involves the bogus synthesis, modification, removal, addition and repair of the genetic material (DNA).

Genetic engineering developed within the mid-1970s once it became potential to chop desoxyribonucleic acid and to transfer specific items of desoxyribonucleic acid from one form of organism into another. As a result, the characteristics of the host organism may well be modified. If host organism could be a organism, like a microorganism, the transferred desoxyribonucleic acid is increased repeatedly because the organism multiplies. Consequently, it’s potential to get uncountable copies of a particular desoxyribonucleic acid within a microorganism cell.

Objectives of gene-splicing

The necessary objectives of gene-splicing square measure as follows.

Isolation of a selected gerje or a part of a factor for numerous functions like factor medical care.
Production of specific ribonucleic acid and supermolecule molecules.
Improvement within the production of enzymes,.drugs and commercially necessary organic chemicals.
Production of types of plants having specific fascinating characteristics.
Treatment of genetic defects in higher organisms.
Q.12.What basic steps a genetic engineer adopts throughout the manipulation of genes?

Ans. Basic Steps in gene-splicing

Isolation of the factor of interest
In the initiative, the factortic engineer identifies the gene of interest in an exceedingly donor organism. Special enzymes, known as restriction endonucleases, square measure accustomed cut the known factor from the full desoxyribonucleic acid of donor organism.

Insertion of the factor into a vector
A vector is chosen for the transfer of the isolated factor of interest to the host cell. The vector could also be a inclusion (the extra-chromosomal desoxyribonucleic acid gift in several bacteria) or a virus. The factor of interest is connected with the vector desoxyribonucleic acid by victimization nuclease (breaking enzymes) and ligase (joining enzymes). The vector desoxyribonucleic acid and therefore the connected factor of interest square measure jointly known as desoxyribonucleic acid.

Transfer of recombinant DMA into host organism

Recombinant DMA is transferred to the target host. during this means, host organism is remodeled into a genetipally changed organism (GMO).

Growth of the GMO
The GMO square measure provided appropriate matter for growth to relinquish the maximum amount copies of the factor of interest pro re nata.

Expression of the factor
The GMO contains the factor of interest and manufactures the required product, that is isolated from matter. .

Q.13. In biotechnology, what’s meant by Genetically changed Organism(GMO)?

How is it obtained?

Ans. once desoxyribonucleic acid is transferred to the target host. The host organism is remodeled into a genetically changed organism (GMO).

Procedure to form GMO ,

First Step: within the initiative, the factortic engineer identifies the gene of interest in an exceedingly donor organism. Special enzymes, known as restriction endonucleases, square measure accustomed cut the known factor from the full desoxyribonucleic acid of donor organism. Figure 17.5

Second Step: A vector is chosen for the transfer of the isolated factor of interest to the host cell. The vector could also be a inclusion (the extra-chromosomal desoxyribonucleic acid gift in several bacteria) or a virus. The factor of interest is connected with the vector desoxyribonucleic acid by victimization nuclease (breaking enzymes) and ligase (joining enzymes). The vector desoxyribonucleic acid and therefore the connected factor of interest square measure jointly known as oligonucleotide acid.

Third step: desoxyribonucleic acid is transferred to the target host. during this means, host organism is remodeled into a genetically changed organism (GMO).

Q.14. Describe the achievements of gene-splicing in medication, agriculture and setting. .

Ans. Achievements of gene-splicing

Various achievements of gene-splicing square measure as follows.

Medicine

Human hypoglycemic agent factor was transferred into bacterium. The genetically changed bacterium became able to synthesize hypoglycemic agent. Diabetics square measure currently receiving this hypoglycemic agent., Before gene-splicing, 500,000 sheep brains were needed to supply five mg human somatotrophin that like hypoglycemic agent is being obtained the bottom. ”
In 1977 associate degree E. coli microorganism was created that was capable of synthesizing the human somatotrophin.
The endocrine hormone which can prove effective against brain and carcinoma has been created by genetically changed microorganisms.
Beta-endorphin, a pain killer created by the brain, has additionally been created by gene-splicing techniques.
Genetic engineers created a secure immunizing agent against the foot and mouth
disease (a microorganism malady in’cattle, goats and deer). equally several vaccines are created against human diseases like serum hepatitis.

Interferons square measure anti-viral proteins created by cells infected with viruses. !n 1980, antiviral was created within the genetically changed microorganisms; for the primary time.
The catalyst peptidase, that is employed to dissolve blood clots, has been created by genetically changed microorganisms.” ”
Now it’s become potential to switch the genes within the human gamete. this will cause the elimination of genetic diseases like heamophilia.
gene-splicing techniques can even be accustomed cure blood diseases like monogenic disorder and monogenic disease, that result from defects in single genes traditional genes may well be transferred into the bone marrow.

Agriculture

Genetic engineers have developed plants that may fix element directly from the atmosphere. Such plants would like less fertilizers.

TRANSGENIC.(organisms with changed genetic set.up)plants square measure being

developed; during which fascinating characteristics square measure gift e.g. additional yields and resistance against diseases, insects and herbicides.

Environment

Microbes, square measure being developed to be used as biopesticides, biofertilizers, biosensors etc. Such transgenic microorganisms are used for the recovery of metals, cleansing of spilled oils and for several different functions.
Bacterial enzymes square measure accustomed treat waste product water to-purify.
Q.1 5.What square measure single cell proteins? Describe their importance.

Ans. SINGLE-CELL supermolecule

Single-Cell supermolecule (SCP) refers to the supermolecule content extracted from pure or mixed cultures of protoctist, yeasts, fungi or bacterium. it’s referred to as single cell supermolecule as a result of the microorganisms used as producers square measure living thing or

filamentous people.

Production of SCP

For the assembly of single-cell proteins, the microorganisms square measure mature in fermenters. These microorganisms utilize a spread of substrate like agricultural wastes, industrial wastes, gas like alkane etc. Microorganisms grow terribly smartly and manufacture a high yield of supermolecule. The supermolecule content created by microorganisms is additionally referred to as novel supermolecule or minifood.

Importance of SCP

SCP is gaining quality day by day as a result of it needs restricted surface area for production. we all know that thanks to over-population, the planet is facing the matter of food shortage. In future, the traditional agricultural ways won’t be able to give a sufficient provide of food (especially proteins). For a much better management of food shortage issues (in humans and domestic animals), the employment of miprobes because the producers of single-cell proteins has been fortunate on experimental basis. this system was introduced by academic. Scrimshow of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. individual and food technologists believe that single-cell proteins can substitute the opposite protein-rich foods in human and animal feeds. •

Significance

All scientists acknowledge the importance of the assembly of single-cell proteins. The microorganisms grow terribly smartly and manufacture a high yield. it’s been

Biotechnology

calculated that fifty kg of yeast produces regarding 250 heaps of supermolecule inside twenty four hours. protoctist mature in ponds manufacture twenty tone (dry weight) of supermolecule per acre/year. This yield of supermolecule is 10-15 times on top of soybeans and 20-50 times on top of corn. once single-cell proteins square measure created by victimization yeasts, the merchandise additionally contain high nutrition content, within the production of single-cell proteins, industrial wastes square measure used as raw materials for microorganisms. It helps in dominant pollution. the employment of single-cell proteins has sensible prospects in future as a result of they contain all essential amino acids. Moreover, the assembly of single-cell proteins is freelance of seasonal differences.

MULTIPLE CHOICE

Encircle or tick (S) the correct option for the statements from the MCQs given below:

  1. Humans have been making use of biotechnology since they discovered

(a) wine making

(b) farming

(c) genetic engineering

(d) cloning

2.Which one of the following is a form of biotechnology?

(a) animal breeding

(b) fish farming

(c) apiculture

(d) sericulture

  1. The use of living organisms in systems or processes for the manufacture of useful products or for services is called as

(a) immunology

(b) ichthyology

(c) biotechnology

(d) pharmacology

  1. Human began using micro-organism as early as

(a) 2000 BC        (b) 3000 BC (c) 4000 BC        (d) 6000 BC

5.Human began using micro-organisms for making

(a) wine and yogurt

(b) vinegar

(c) cheese

(d) all these

6.Which one of the following is considered as old biotechnology?

(a) farming

(b) animal breeding

(c) fermentation

(d) apiculture and sericulture

7.Who produced a sheep (Dolly) through genetic engineering? (a) lan Wilmut    (b) Gregor Mendel (c) lan Charles   (d) Charles Wilmut

8.An embryologist lan Wilmut produced

a sheep Dolly in

(a) 1991 (b) 1993

(c) 1997 (d) 1999

9.Which one of the following is considered as modern biotechnology

(a) genetic engineering

(b) fermentation

(c) animal breeding

(d) farming

10.The work started in

on genptic engineering

(a) 1944   (c) 1980

‘(b) 1964   (d)1990

11.When the scientists were able to cut and paste the DNA of organisms?

(a) 1944   (b) 1964   (c) 1970’s      (d) 1977

 

  1. In which year scientists prepared human insulin by inserting the insulin gene in bacteria? (a) 1970 (b) 1978 (c) 1988 (d) 1997
  2. The complete map of human genome was published in

(a) 1970 (b) 1990 (c) 1997             (d) 2002

  1. In the field of medicine, biotechnologists synthesized

(a) analgesics    (b) insulin (c) sedatives      (d) narcotics

  1. Interferons are

(a) antibiotics     (b) vaccines

(c) antiviral proteins

(d) human growth hormone

  1. Biotechnology techniques are very beneficial .in forensic medicine for identification of criminals through the study of

(a) fingerprints   (b) DNA (c) blood tests    (d) all these

  1. A large number of vaccines, antibodies, human growth hormones and other drugs have been produced through

(a) Pharmacology

(b) Materia Medica

(c) Biotechnology

(d) Genetic engineering

  1. Treatment through genes is known as

(a) gene insertion

(b) gene therapy

(c) DNA finger printing  d) PCR

  1. Powdered milk: a mixture of barley, wheat flour and whole milk is an example Of

(a) malted foods   ,

(b) fermented foods

(c) dairy products     (d)    beverage

20.Biotechnology has also revolutionized research activities in the area of (a) agriculture    (b) aquaculture (c) apiculture     (d) sericulture

  1. Various vitamins ere produced through

(a) dairy products

(b) micro-organisms

(c) vegetables and fruits

(d) all of these

  1. Transgenic organisms have been created to produce drugs from their \

(a) milk (b) blood (c) urine            (d) all these

  1. Bacterial enzymes are used

(a) in medicines

(b) to treat sewage water

(c) in agriculture

(d) all these

  1. Microbes are being developed to be used as

(a) biopesticides (b) biofertilizers (c) biosensors    (d) all these

  1. The process in which there is incomplete oxidation-reduction of organic substrate is known as

(a) glycolysis

(b) fermentation

(c) citric acid cycle

(d) electro transport chain

  1. In 1857, who convinced the scientific community that all fermentation processes are the result of microbial activity?

(a) Fleming .      (b) Pasteur (c) lan Wilmut    (d) Joseph Lister

  1. In glycolysis, the glucose is broken into

(a) pyruvie acid   (b) acetic acid (c) lactic acid     (d) formic acid

 

28.The fermentation is carried out by many types of yeast such as

  1. fa) Nostoc (b) Bacillus

(c) Saccharomyces

(d) all these

  1. When carbon dioxide is removed from pyruvic acid it is reduced into (a) ethanol (b) butanol (c) methanol (d) acetic acid
  2. Lactic acid fermentation is carried out by

(a) Streptococcus

(b) Lactobacillus .

(c) Saccharomyces

(d) both a and b

31.Lactic acid in fermentation is important for

(a) dairy industry

(b) wine industry

(c) pharmacology

(d) all these

32.In industrial level lactic acid fermentation is used for

(a) souring milk

(b) production of cheese

(c) backery items

(d) both a and b

33.It makes the food more nutritious, more digestible, safer, or tastier (a) Sterilization   (b) Refrigeration , (c) Fermentation (d) Preservation

  1. Wheat dough is fermented by

(a) Saccharomyces cerevisiae

(b) lactic acid bacteria

(c) Aspergillus    (d) both a and b

  1. In industrial level formic acid is produced through

(a) Aspergillus

(b) Saccharomyces

(c) Bacillus

(d) Streptococcus

  1. Ethanol and glycerol are produced with the help of

(a) Aspergillus

(b) Saccharomyces

(c) Streptococcus

(d) Bacillus

37.How many types of fermentation processes are carried out in fermenters?

, (a) two (b) three   (c) four              (d) six

  1. Acrylic acid in industrial level is produced through

(a) Bacillus        (b) Saccharomyces (c) Aspergillus   (d) Nostoc

  1. What is the major use of formic acid?

(a) in beverages

(b) in cosmetics ,

(c) in textile dyeing

(d) in fertilizers

40.Acrylic acid is used in

(a) industrial intermediate for plastics

(b) solvent and as sweetener

(c) industrial solvent

(d) all these

41.Which one of the following is used in rubber manufacture?

(a) formic acid    (b) ethanol (c) glycerol       (d) acrylic acid

42.Which one of these is used as sweetener?

(a) pyruvic acid  (b) ethanol (c) glycerol        (d) lactic acid

  1. Which of these is used in leather treatment?

(a) formic acid    (b) lactic acid (c) citric acid      (d) acrylic acid

44.Which one of these chemical/s is/are used in electroplating?

(a) acrylic acid    (b) formic acid (c) citric acid      (d) all these

 

  1. Which one is an intermediate for vinegar, esters and ethers?

(a) methanol      (b) butanol (c) ethanol         (d) pentanol

  1. Which one of the following fermenters has more complex design and arrangement

(a) batch fermentation

(b) continuous fermentation

(c) pharmacology fermentation

(d) both a and b

  1. The important objective of genetic engineering is

(a) production of particular protein molecules

(b) treatment of genetic defects

(c) gene therapy

(d) all these

  1. Which special enzymes are used to cut the identified gene from the total DNA of organism?

(a) restriction endonucleases

(b) restriction ligases

(c) bacteriophages

(d) both a and b.

  1. The vector DNA and the attached gene of interest are collectively called

(a) polymerase chain reactions

(b) recombinant DNA

(c) genetically modified organism

(d) transgenic

  1. Before genetic engineering, how many sheep brains were required to produce 5 mg human growth hormone?

(a) 5,000 (b) 50,000 (c) 500,000        (d) 5000,000

  1. Single-Cell Protein refers to the protein content extracted from pure or mixed cultures of

(a) algae

(b) yeast

(c) fungi or bacteria

(d) all these

52.for the production of SCP, the microorganisms are grown in

(a) culture (b) petri dishes (c) fermenters    (d) test tubes

  1. For the culture of SCP micro organisms utilize

(a) agricultural wastes

(b) industrial wastes

(c) natural gas like methane

(d) all these

  1. Which of the following hormone proved effective against brain and lung cancer?

(a) adrenaline    (b) calcitonin (c) thymosin       (d) parathormone

  1. Beta-endorphin, one of the pain killers is produced by the (a) kidneys (b) brain (c) liver (d) pancreas

56.The first genetically engineered interferon was produced in

(a) 1970 (b) 1980 (c) 1984  (d) 1990

  1. It is an enzyme, which is used to dissolve blood clots

(a) urokinase     (b) protease (c) ligase           (d) nuclease

  1. For the cure of thalassemia and sickle cell anaemia the normal genes could be transferred into the (a) human egg (b) bone marrow (c) tissues (d) liver