Q.1. Differentiate between movement and locomotion?
Ans. “Movement” is a general term meaning the act of changing place or position by entire body or by its parts, Locomotion is the movement of an animal as a whole from one place to another.

Q.2. Define skeletal system?
Ans. Skeletal system or skeleton is defined as the framework of hard, articulated structures that provide physical support, attachment for skeletal muscles, and protection for the bodies of animals, such as skeleton of bones in human being.

Q. 3. Differentiate between exoskeleton and endoskeleton.
Ans. The skeletal system of some invertebrates e.g., arthropods, is on the outside of the body and is called exoskeleton. In vertebrates the skeleton is on the inside of body and is called endoskeleton.

Q. 4. What is the role of skeleton in support and movement? Ans. Role of Skeletal System
The main functions of skeletal system are: protection, support and movements. In our body, skeleton works very closely with the muscle system to help us move. Similarly, skeleton provides protection to many internal organs e.g., skull protects brain, vertebral column protects spinal cord, and ribs protect most of our other internal organs. Vertebral column also provides the main support to our body mass. ,

Q. 5. Differentiate between cartilage and bone.
Ans. Cartilage and bones are two types of connective tissue in animals. Most connective tissues contain collagen fibers in a mafrix.
Cartilage ,
Cartilage is a dense, clear blue-white firm connective tissue (but less strong than bone). The cells of cartilage are called chondrocytes.
Bone is the hardest connective tissue in body. Bones not only move, support and protect the various parts of body but also produce red and white blood cells and store minerals.

08 Caravan’s Biology Objective

Q.6. Describe the structure and types of cartilage and bone.
Cartilage is a dense, clear blue-white firm connective tissue (but less strong than bone).
The cells of cartilage are called chondrocytes. Each chondroycyte lies in a fluid space called lacuna present in the matrix of cartilage. The matrix of cartilage also contains collagen fibers. Blood vessels do not enter cartilage.
Types of Cartilage ‘
Inter-vertebral discs
Hyaline Cartilage

Figure 13.1 Left Fibrous cartilage.

.There are three type of cartilage: Figure 13.1,13.2
Hyaline cartilage is strong yet
flexible. It is found covering the ends elf the long bones, in the nose, larynx, trachea and bronchial tubes.
Figure 13.2 Hyaline cartilage
Elastic cartilage is similar in
structure to hyaline cartilage. It
is also quite strong but has marrow
elasticiy due to a network of ompact
elastic fibers in addition to
collagen fibers. It is found in
epiglottis, pine etc.
(iii) Fibrous cartilage is very tough and less flexible due to large number of thick collagen fibers present in knitted form. It is found in intervertebral discs.
Spongy bone
Compact bone
Figure 13.3 Compact and spongy bone
Reproduction 69
Bone is the hardest connective tissue in body.
Bones not only help move, support and protect the various parts of body but also produce red and white blood ceils and store minerals.
Structure and Types of Bone
The hard outer layer of a bone
is called compact bone while the interior of bone is soft and porous. It is called spongy bone. Spongy bone contains blood vessels and bone marrow. Figure 13.3
Bone matrix
Osteocytes (in lacunae)
Canal, containing blood vessels etc.

Figure 13.4 The internal structure of bone

Like cartilage, the matrix ofj«bones also ^Bntains
also Contains
minerals e.g. calcium and phosphate. We know that cartilage contains a single type of cell. On $e other hand, bones contain different types of cell. The mature bone cells are called osteocytes. Figure 13.4

Q.7. How many bones are present in human babies and how many in adults?
Ans. Babies are born with about 300 soft bones. Some of these bones later fuse together, so that the adult skeleton has 206 hard bones.

Q. 8. Why Andreas Vesalius is famous for?
Ans. Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) is honored for developing modern anatomical studies. Vesalius was born in Brussels, Belgium/ He made many discoveries in anatomy, based on studies made by dissection of human dead bodies. His book contained the most accurate depictions of the whole skeleton and muscles of the human body.

Q. 9. What are the main components of the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton?
Ans. Components of Human Skeleton
The 206 bones in the adult human skeleton are organized into a longitudinal axis i.e. axial skeleton, to which appendicular skeleton is attached.
Reproduction 70
Axial skeleton consists of 80 bones in the head and trunk of body. It is composed of five parts.
(i) Skull contains 22 bones out of which 8 are cranial bones (enclosing the brain) and 14 are facial bones.
(ii) There are 6 middle ear ossicles (3 in each ear).
(iii) There is also a hyoid bone in neck.
(iv) Vertebral column contains 33 bones (vertebrae).
(v) The chest is made of a chest bone called sternum and 24 (12 pairs) ribs.
Appendicular skeleton is composed of 126 bones. Figure 13.5
(i) Pectoral
(shoulder) girdle is made of 4 bones. Arms have 6 bones. Both hands have 56 bones.
(ii) Pelvic girdle
(hips) has 2 bones. Legs have 8 bones. Both feet have 56 bones.

Q.10. Name the longest and smallest bone of human body.
Ans. The thigh bone is the longest bone in our body and the smallest bone in our body is stapes.
Pectoral girdle
Arm —
Hand —
Rib cage-
Vertebral column
Pelvic girdle

Figure 13.5 The human skeleton

Reproduction 71

Q. 11. Describe the types of joints and give examples. Ans. Joint
A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact. ,
Fixed joints
allow and
Slightly moveabte joint

Figure 13.6 Fixed and slightly moveabJe joints

Types of Joints
Joints can be classified on the basis of the degree of movement they allow.
(i) Immoveable (Fixed) joints: Such joints allow no movement e.g. the joints between the skull bones.
(ii) Slightly moveable joints: Such joints allow slight movements e.g. joints between the vertebrae. Figure 13.6
jplBI^ numerus
Moveable .’ ^c»^ ‘ V.
They allow
a variety of
joint, hip
joint, elbow
joint, knee
joint etc.
There are many types of moveable joints in body. The main types are hinge joints and ball-and-socket joints.
(i) Hinge joints move back and forth like the hinge on a door and allow movements in one plane only. The knee and elbow are hinge joints.
(ii) Ball-and-socket joints allow movement in all directions. The hip and shoulder joints are ball-and-socket joints. Figure 13.7
Hinge joint Ball-and-socket joint Figure 13.7 Ttyo types of moveabte joints
76 Caravan’s Biology Objective
27. Pectoral girdle is made up of (a) 4 bones (b) 6 bones (c) 8 bones (d) 12 bones
28. Human arms have how many bones? (a) 4 (b) 6 (c) 8 (d) 10
29. Both hands have
(a) 54 bones (b) 56 bones (c) 58 bones (d) 62 bones
30. Pelvic girdle has how many bones? (a) 2 (b) 4
(c) 6 , (d) 8 • • •31. How many bones are present in legs? (a) 6 (b) 8 (c) 10 (d) 1232. Both feet have (a) 52 bones (c) 56 bones
(b) 54 bones (d) 58 bones
33. Skull and backbone constitute which of the following?
(a) vertebral column
(b) axial skeleton
(c) appendicular skeleton
(d) hydrostatic skeleton
34. Axial skeleton comprises of
(a) skull
(b) vertebral column
(c) girdles
(d) both a and b
35. Appendicular skeleton consists of which of the following ?
(a) pectoral girdle
(b) pelvic girdle
(c) arms and legs
(d) all of these
36. Which of the following forms the central supporting structure of the skeleton? ,
(a) skull
(b) vertebral column
(c) pectoral girdle
(d) pelvic girdle
37. How many pairs of ribs are attached to the upper part of the vertebral column?
(a) 10. (0-13
(b) 12 (d) 33
38. The knee and elbow are
(a) hinge joints
(b) ball-and-socket joints
(c) immoveable joints
(d) fixed joints
39. The example of ball-and-socket joints is
(a) hip and shoulder
(b) knee and elbow
(c) skull
(d) joints between vertebrae
40. Joints that.allow movement in all’ direction are called
(a) ball-and-socket joints
(b) hinge joints
(c) immoveable joints
(d) fixed joints
41. Which of these prevent dislocation of bones at joints?
(a) muscles (b) ligaments (c) tendons (d) extensions
42. Relevant bones of the joints are held together by
(a) tendons (b) flexors (c) ligaments (d) extensors
43. The bones of arms are attached to. vertebral column through (a) skull (b) pectoral girdle (c) pelvic girdle (d) ribs
44. The bands of tissues that attach muscle to the skeleton (bones) ‘are called
(a) tendons (c) biceps
(b) ligaments (d) triceps –
Reproduction 77
45. The joints that allow movements in only one direction are called
(a) ball and socket
(b) hinge joints
(c) fixed joints (d) synovial joints
46. The ball and socket joints allow movements in which of the following direction?
(a) forward (b) backward (c) sideway (d) all of these
47. Which of these pairs of joints in a human body allow movements in all direction?
(a) shoulder and neck joints
(b) hip and elbow joints
(c) hip and shoulder joints
(d) elbow and knee joints
48. The end of a skeletal muscle that is attached to an immoveable bone is called
(a) origin (c) flexion
(b) insertion (d) extension
49. The end of a muscle set that is attached to the moveable bone is called
(a) origin (c) flexion
(b) insertion (d) extension
50. Which point of attachment is pulled when a muscle contrasts? (a) origin (b) flexion (c) insertion (d) both a and b
51. Straightening of arm at elbow joint is (a) flexion (b) origin (c) extension (d) antagonism
52. Muscles work only by
(a) contraction (b) relaxion .(c) extension (d) flexion
53. The bending of arm is an example of (a) flexion (b) extension (c) antagonism (d) insertion
54. When one muscle contracts the other relaxes. This phenomenon is known as
(a) flexion (b) antagonism (c) extension (d) insertion
55. The upward movements of the forearm at elbow joints is brought about by
(a) biceps muscles
(b) triceps muscles
(c) tendons
(d) ligaments
56. Deposition of minerals in bones is one of the function of (a) progesterone (b) esterogen (c) vasopressin (d) calcitonin
57. Osteoporosis is a bone disease ‘ common in ‘
(a) children
(b) men
(c) women
(d) pregnant women
58. In osteoporosis there is a decrease in density of bones due to loss of
(a) calcium and phosphorus
(b) calcium and carbonates
(c) calcium and iron
(d) calcium and zinc
59. Inflammation in joints is called.
(a) osteoporosis
(b) arthritis
(c) myopia
(d) -asthma
60. The treatment of arthritis is
(a) pain killer medicines
(b) anti-inflammatory medicines
(c) antibiotics and diuretic medicines
(d) both a and b
Reproduction 78
In which of the following degeneration in the cartilage present at joints occur?
(a) osteo-arthritis
(b) rheumatoid arthritis
(c) gout (d) osteoporosis
Which one of the following involves in the inflammation of the membranes at joints
(a) osteo-arthritis
(b) rheumatoid arthritis
(c) gout
(d) osteoporosis
63. It is characterized by the accumulation of uric acid crystals in moveable joints
(a),, gout
(b) rheumatoid arthritis
(c) osteo-arthritis
(d) osteoporosis
64. In Gout which one of the following accumulates in joints? (a) ammonia (b) uric acid (c) urea (d) lactic acid

1. d
2. c
3. c
4: c
5. c
6. b
7. d
8. b

9. b
10. c
11. c
12. c
13. a
14. c
15. d ‘
16. d

17. b
18. c
19. a
20. d
21. b
22. c
23 b
24. b

25. a
26. a
27. a
28. b
29. b
30. a
31. b
32. c

33. b
34. d
35. d
36. b
37. b
38. a
39. a
40. a

41. b
42. c
43. b
44. a
45. b
46. d
47. c
48. a

49. b
50. c
51. c
52. a
53. a
54. b
55. a
56. b

57 c
58. a
59. b
60. d
61. a
62. b
63 a
64. b

1. Find the ball-and-socket joint
(a) joint in the finger bones
(b) joint of neck and skull bones
(c) joint at elbow
joint at pelvic girdle and leg bones
2. All these are the part of axial skeleton of human except.
(a) ribs
(b) sternum c) shoulder girdle (d) vertebra! column
3. The disorder in which there is an accumulation of uric acid in joint is. gout
(b) rheumatoid arthritis
(c) osteoporosis
(d) osteo-arthritis
What is correct about tendons?
(a) tendons are flexible and they join muscles with bones
(b) tendons are non-elastic and they join bones with bones tendons are non-elastic and they join muscles with bones
(d) tendons are flexible and they join muscles with muscles
How man (a) 14 (c) 24
Ties, make our skull? (b) 22 (d) 26
What are the main components of a bone?
(a) marrow, spongy bone, wax
(b) marrow, compact bone, wax compact bone and marrow compact bone, spongy bone, marrow
Reproduction 79
7. What do some bones produce? (a) mucous (b) hormones (c) oxygen (d) blood cells
8. How would you define skeletal system
(a) All the bones in body
(b) All the muscles and tendons
(c) All the body’s organs, both soft and hard
(d) All the bones in body and the tissues that connect them
9. Find the incorrect statement
(a) bones is where most blood cells are made
(b) bones serve as a storehouse for various minerals ,„«-
(c) bone is a dry and non-living supporting structure
(d) bone protects and supports the body and its organs
10. The purpose of rib cage is to
(a) protect the stomach
(b) protect the spinal card
(c) protect the heart and lungs
(d) provide an object to which the lungs can attach
1. d 9. c
2. c 10. c
3. a
4. c 5. b
6. d
7. d
8. d
What types of cartilage these are?
Cartilage of epiglottis
Cartilage of larynx
Cartilage of trachea

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