Give the reaction of formation of ammonia in the process.

  1. No.iv. Give the reaction of formation of ammonia in the process.

Answer. It is prepared by the Haber’s process. One volume of nitrogen (from air) and three volumes of hydrogen (obtained by passing methane and steam over heated nickel catalyst) are passed over iron catalyst at 450°C and 200 atm pressure.

N2 + 3H2               2NH3

  1. No. v. Give the advantages of Solvay’s Process.

Answer. Solvay’s process has the following advantages:

(i)       It is a cheap process as raw materials are available at very low prices.

(ii)      Carbon dioxide and ammonia are recovered and reused.

(iii)     Process is pollution free, because the only waste is calcium chloride solution.

(iv)     Sodium carbonate of very high purity is obtained.

(v)      Consumption of fuel is very less since no solution is to be evaporated.

  1. No. i. What happens when ammonium carbonate is heated with steam?

Answer. When ammonium cabana is evaporated with the help of steam, it dehydrates to form urea.

NH2COONH4 ———>NH2CONH2 + H2O

  1. No. ii. How many stages are involved in formation of urea?

Answer. Three stages are involved in the formation of urea. These stages are:

  1. Reaction of ammonia and carbondioxcide.
  2. Urea formation.

iii. Granulation of urea.

  1. No. iii. What is percentage of nitrogen in urea?

Answer. Percentage of nitrogen in urea is 46%.

  1. No. i. Define petroleum.

Answer. Petroleum is a natural product found under the Earth’s crust trapped in rocks. Petroleum means rock oil. It is a complex mixture of several gaseous, liquid and solid hydrocarbons having water, salts and earth particles with it. It is lighter than water and is insoluble in it.

  1. No. ii. How petroleum is extracted?

Answer. Petroleum is extracted by drilling holes (oil wells) into Earth’s crust where the oil is found. When a well is drilled through the rocks, natural gas comes first with a great pressure. For some time crude oil also comes out by itself due to gas pressure. When gas pressure subsides, then crude oil is pumped out as shown in figure.

  Occurrence of petroleum

  1. No. iii. What is principle of fractional distillation?

Answer. The principle of fractional distillation is based upon separation of substances depending upon their boiling points. The substances having low boiling points boil out first leaving behind others. Then next fraction of slightly higher boiling point boils out. This process remain continue until a residue is left behind. The vapours of each fraction are collected and condensed separately.

  1. No.iv. In how many fractions crude oil is separated?

Answer. Crude oil is separated into six fractions:

  1. Petroleum gas b. Petroleum ether c. Gasoline or petrol      d. Kerosene oil e. Diesel oil          f. Fuel oil
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