Chapter No. 9 Population, Society and Culture of Pakistan

Growth and Distribution of Population in Asian nation

Population, Society and Culture of Asian nation: Pakistan could be a densely inhabited country. Density of population suggests that the typical variety of individuals living in a very sq. kilometer. Asian nation is that the sixth largest country within the world with relevance population. the primary 5 countries so as of population area unit China, India, America, Republic of Indonesia and Brazil. in keeping with the Economic Survey of Asian nation 2013-14, the population of Asian nation is 188.02 millions. it’s increasing at the speed of one.95% every year. The ascension in population may be seen from the facts that in keeping with the census of 1998, Pakistan’s population was thirteen large integer, 23 lakh, and fifty two thousand. This inflated to over eighteen large integer eight 100000 in 2014. 2 details area unit unbroken visible in regard to population: initial, its distribution and second its rate of growth. The census of 1998 shows that the density of population in Asian nation was 164 persons per sq. kilometer. the most recent statistics show that it’s in more than 236 persons per sq. kilometer. which means that the realm is that the same however population is increasing quickly. that’s why Asian nation is enclosed within the list of densely inhabited countries. In 1950, with relevance population, Asian nation was the thirteenth largest country within the world. If the speed of growth in population remains constant, by 2050 Asian nation can become the fifth largest country of the globe. in keeping with the Economic Survey of Asian nation 2013-14, necessary info concerning Asian nation’s population is given below: Population of Pakistan 188.02 million Urban population seventy two.50 million Rural population one hundred fifteen.52 million average age of females sixty six.9 years average age of males 64.9 years

1. Density of population in relevancy provinces The geographic region is that the largest province of Asian nation in population. concerning fifty four of Pakistan’s population lives within the geographic region. On average, 499 persons sleep in a sq. kilometer within the geographic region. In Balochistan there area unit on the average twenty eight persons per sq. kilometer. In Sindh the typical variety of persons per sq. km is 318 and in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa it’s 339.

2. Census To develop a meaty and sure-fire set up for any country, the essential facts about different aspects of population ought to be on the market, like total population and its regional distribution, quantitative relation of rural and concrete population, rate, population per kilometer, education and academic ability and important professions of the folks etc area unit on high. the method of getting these facts and figures is named a census. A census is command when each ten years. the primary census within the Indo- Pak landmass was command in 1881. when the creation of Asian nation, census has been command five times. the main points area unit given below: Year of census Population (approximately) 1951 three.37 large integer 1961 four.28 large integer 1972 vi.53 large integer 1981 eight.42 large integer 1998 thirteen large integer twenty three 100000 (B) The Factors touching the Distribution and Density of Population
No country has uniform distribution and density of population. Some area unitas are heavily inhabited, some gently inhabited and a few have a median population. several factors have an effect on the distribution and density of population. Some area unit natural factors and a few area unit human factors. Their details area unit given below:

1. Geographical factors a section that has level, soft and fertile land is simple to populate. Here resources and suggests that of living may be simply obtained by farming and horticulture. In such areas, living, building homes and getting the requirements of life is comparatively straightforward. that’s why these area unitas are overpopulated. On the opposite hand, rugged tract, mountains, forests, or barren and barren areas aren’t appropriate for living. that’s why such areas have a awfully tiny population. The plain areas of Asian nation wherever the soil is extremely fertile and productive have a dense population, like the stream Indus Plain, the valleys of metropolis and Mardan, etc.

2. Climate The health of individuals living in a very favourable climate is nice. Timely precipitation results in high agricultural production and ample handiness of food. that’s why such area unitas typically are heavily inhabited. giant ancient cities existed close to stream banks. Temperate and semi hot climates wherever there’s loads of precipitation become densely inhabited. The climate of our northern mountain ranges is extremely cold. The climate of Balochistan upland and desert areas is extraordinarily hot. that’s why these area unitas are sparsely inhabited. The northern area unitas of the geographic region and urban center have a temperate climate so that they are densely inhabited.

3. natural resource within the areas that have valuable mineral reserves e.g. coal, iron, oil, gas or precious stones etc, many folks there gather to earn a living. In such areas, there area unit suggests that of transportation also. close to such areas, mills and factories also are established. giant industrial cities inherit being and population will increase, just like the Potowar upland in Asian nation.

4. Water reserves Most of the population of the globe is settled around water reserves. for instance, the most important and most densely inhabited town of Asian nation, urban center is found on the coast of the Arabian Sea. In geographic region and Sindh, cities with a lot of population area unit settled close to rivers, whereas shortage of water in areas distant from water sources results in tiny population there.

5. Trade and industrial area unitas The areas that are situated on or close to trade highways have a rise in population. Besides land routes, ocean and air routes hold nice importance also. Therefore, those cities and areas that have giant seaports and airports at the side of trade markets, grow in population also. Those area unitas wherever industries are situated give sources of financial gain so have a lot of population. Faisalabad has become the third largest town of Asian nation thanks to industrial development. Industries also are one in every of the explanations for the dense population of urban center, Lahore, Gujranwala, Sialkot, etc.

6. Political and social conditions The area unitas that have peaceful political conditions and wherever folks have social freedom and economic facilities are heavily inhabited. typically for non secular, political or social reasons folks area unit forced to maneuver from one space to a different. Such was the migration of many Muslims from India to Asian nation at the time of partition. They settled in several areas of Asian nation.

The Rural and concrete Distribution of Population in keeping with the Economic Survey of Asian nation 2013-14, 72.50 million population of Asian nation lives in cities, whereas the remainder lives in villages. Facilities like electricity, gas, telephone, road, education, etc. aren’t solely a lot of however conjointly higher in cities than in villages. within the gift times the population of cities is increasing quick. folks not solely move to cities for higher facilities of education, medical and {livelihood|support|keep|living|bread and howeverter|sustenance|resource} but conjointly for raising the quality of living. The population of city, Karachi, Islamabad, Faisalabad, Hyderabad, Nawabshah, metropolis and Gujranwala etc, has inflated quickly within the past few years. common fraction of the population of Asian nation lives in villages, and depends on agriculture for his or her living. there’s a insufficiency of contemporary facilities of life like water, electricity, schools, colleges, hospitals, and trade centres in villages. As there’s less handiness of social activities and suggests that of earning living in villages, folks area unit moving towards cities. thanks to this trend of migration, the load of population is increasing unendingly to associate degree minatory level in cities. this can be resulting in issues arising in housing, employment, education, recreation, transport and lots of different requirements of life. in keeping with the census of 1998, composition and geographical distribution of urban and rural population is given below: social unit Population in 1998 (In thousands) Rural population Urban population Average share of population Asian nation 132352 89316 43036 a hundred.0 geographic region 73621 50602 23019 fifty five.6 Sindh 30440 15600 14840 twenty three.0 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 17744 14750 2994 thirteen.4 Balochistan 6566 four997 1569 five.0 Islamabad 805 276 529 zero.6 FATA 3176 3091 850 two.4

Gender-wise Distribution of Population Gender-wise distribution of population suggests that division of population on the premise of being male or feminine. in keeping with the facts and figures of 2013-14, males represent concerning fifty one.35% of the whole population of Asian nation, whereas females represent concerning forty eight.65% of it. folks move to urban areas from rural areas in search of labor. Most of those folks area unit males. that’s why urban areas have a bigger variety of males whereas rural areas have a coffee variety of males. Facts and figures show that the speed of birth of males in Asian nation is over that of females. These facts may be declared to be very suitable for economic development and activities. within the labour force males area unit eighty six.5% whereas females area unit thirteen.5%. it’s attainable to extend economic development in Asian nation by creating people sure-handed.

Literacy rate in {pakistan|Pakistan|Islamic Republic of Asian nation|West Pakistan|Asian country|Asian nation} in keeping with the Economic Survey of Pakistan 2013-14, the acquisition rate in Asian nation was hour. In urban population this rate was seventy six and in rural population it’s fifty one. in keeping with the education policy of 2009, it absolutely was the govt of Pakistan’s determination to lift the acquisition rate to eighty six by 2015. For this purpose the govt determined to require several measures such as:

i. Allocating the next budget to education within the yearly development budget.

ii. Raising the standing of Middle colleges to High and High colleges to Higher Secondary.

iii. taking note to arts and technical education at the side of the regular courses.

iv. Paying special attention to enhance water, hygienic and recreational facilities in academic establishments. in keeping with the Economic Survey of Asian nation 201314, the acquisition rate within the four provinces is as follows: Province share of acquisition rate share of acquisition in urban population share of acquisition in rural population geographic region sixty two seventy seven fifty five Sindh sixty seventy seven forty two Khyber Pakhtunkhwa fifty two sixty six forty nine Balochistan forty four sixty five thirty seven

Educational Condition in {pakistan|Pakistan|Islamic Republic of Asian nation|West Pakistan|Asian country|Asian nation} the govt of Pakistan considers education to be the fundamental right of each national and is strain for the event of the education sector. The experiences of the developed countries show that the event of the education sector depends on collective academic financial gain. To progress economically and socially it’s necessary to take a position within the education sector. Education and economic and social development area unit reciprocally dependent. Despite the very fact that for an extended amount of your time, attention wasn’t paid to the current sector, however currently higher coming up with is being finished the promotion of education. in keeping with the census of 1951, the acquisition rate in Asian nation was 16 PF, in 1998, it was 45%, and facts and figures of 2013-14 show that it absolutely was hour. This increase is still tiny compared thereto of another developing countries. For the expansion in economic development, it’s necessary that the acquisition rate ought to be high.

Educational structure of {pakistan|Pakistan|Islamic Republic of Asian nation|West Pakistan|Asian country|Asian nation} the tutorial structure of Pakistan is split into the subsequent stages. 1. homework and first education The education before category One is named homework. This typically includes kids aged between three and four years. From category I to category five is named primary education that is imparted in primary colleges and place of worship colleges. The federal and provincial governments try to determine primary colleges in each village so all voters area unit given similar academic opportunities. 2. Middle, Secondary and better pedagogy In Asian nation, middle education is from category vi to category eight. pedagogy is from category nine to category ten. Higher pedagogy includes category eleven and sophistication twelve. Higher pedagogy incorporates a course period of two years during which the courses instructed area unit Arts, Science and Commerce. the category five and sophistication eight exams area unit command underneath the oversight of Ministry of Education. The exams of sophistication nine to category twelve area unit command underneath the oversight of the Board of Intermediate and pedagogy. 3. University Education when Higher Secondary the University education commences. several universities within the country are established for education of this level. There area unit many varieties of university education. This education includes the degrees of B.A, B.Sc, M.A. and M.Sc. M.Phil, Ph.D. several faculties give pedagogy also. For skilled studies students have to be compelled to get admission to skilled faculties. For subjects like Commerce, Agriculture and different arts connected branches of information, there area unit faculties and universities established for this purpose.

Educational issues of {pakistan|Pakistan|Islamic Republic of Asian nation|West Pakistan|Asian country|Asian nation} The necessary academic issues of Pakistan area unit given below: i. Asian nation is facing the matter of population. thanks to this the quantity of academic establishments is falling short. Students aren’t obtaining adequate opportunities to review. the bulk of scholars in Asian nation belong to poor and social class families. Poor folks area unit unable to send their kids to high school thanks to unhealthy economic conditions. This results in a coffee acquisition rate. Healthy extracurricular activities, sports, debates, poetry recitation, speeches, seminars and study tours facilitate within the ethical upbringing and temperament development of scholars. The facilities for these activities in our academic establishments area unit restricted. iii. the bulk of fogeys in Asian nation need to create their kids either engineers or doctors. The student’s power and mentality aren’t thought of. Students area unit forced to review science subjects that place a psychological pressure on them. iv. The budget allotted for education in Asian nation is too little. there’s a insufficiency of lecturers also. v. There area unit some faults in our examination system. This includes rote done by students, trend towards cheating, question papers being leaked before the exams, the angle of the examination workers, shortage of your time and therefore the technique of assessing papers. to extend the understanding and performance of scholars, the system of exams ought to be created clear and effective. vi. Political interventions conjointly produce issues within the education system of Asian nation. Students become directly concerned in politics that affects their academic future. vii. totally different courses area unit instructed in Asian nation in government and personal academic institutes. This twin system of education conjointly takes the shape of an academic downside. This lack of a standardized system of education is harmful for Pakistan’s unity and commonality. viii. Most of the tutorial establishments of Asian nation face the issues, of lack of basic facilities like clean water downside, electricity shortage, faulty system of sanitation, hostels and transport issues. several students area unit bereft of education thanks to these issues.

Suggestions for the answer of academic issues Some necessary suggestions for the answer of academic issues area unit given below: i. Keeping visible the necessities of the increasing population, new academic establishments ought to be established. The budget allocation for education ought to be inflated. ii. a standardized system of education ought to be enforced within the whole country. iii. The examination system ought to be set right. Cheating and different unfair suggests that ought to be checked. iv. Students ought to keep a distance from political activities. they ought to concentrate only on their education. v. lecturers ought to be inspired. vi. All government academic establishments should be supplied with sports fields, clean beverage and different facilities. vii. Art and technical subjects ought to be enclosed within the course of study. viii. In madrassa colleges science and different typical subjects ought to even be instructed. ix. academic establishments ought to be supplied with facilities for healthy extracurricular activities and social hobbies. x. Subjects ought to be instructed in keeping with the power and mentality of scholars. xi. enhancements ought to be caused within the education sector to dispel the troubles of scholars. Governmental Measures i. To hasten the pace of academic development, the subsequent area unit the measures taken by the government: ii. Provision of free education and free textbooks from homework to Secondary level. iii. Provision of scholarships for college students for his or her instruction. iv. Restructuring of the course of study keeping visible the longer term wants, and on scientific basis. v. Cooperation with government and personal sector and their whole-souled encouragement for the promotion of technical, occupation and scientific education. vi. up the quality of upper education for socio-economic development. vii. institution of a lot of and a lot of universities for pedagogy, at governmental and personal levels. viii. institution of ‘’Education Foundation’’ for the answer of academic issues at national and provincial levels. ix. Revolutionary efforts within the field of knowledge technology.

Health Condition in {pakistan|Pakistan|Islamic Republic of Asian nation|West Pakistan|Asian country|Asian nation} In Asian nation the health department is underneath the management of provincial government. Its head is that the Health Minister. The Health Minister, in conjunction with the provincial cupboard, decides upon policies for the complete province. At village level girl Health Visitors (LHV) fulfill their duties. At primary level Basic Health Units and Rural Health Centres area unit established. District Governments management Tehsil Headquarter Hospitals and District Headquarter Hospitals at secondary level. Besides these, teaching hospitals, mental state institutes, medical specialty institutes and children’s hospitals area unit directly underneath the management of the provincial government. institution of medical faculties and numerous medical establishments Presently there area unit several medical faculties and medical universities within the country that fulfill medical wants. Institute of Public Health and University of Health Sciences area unit established in city. Asian nation Nursing Council and Medical and Dental Council were established in Islamabad. Hospitals for heart diseases, burn units, and mother and kid care units area unit inbuilt the big cities of Asian nation. they supply timely treatment to patients and area unit concerned within the effort to save lots of their lives. wipeout of diseases There area unit efforts current in Asian nation (with the cooperation of the global organization and different countries) for the wipeout of infectious disease, chicken pox, malaria, T.B., cholera, cancer, leprosy, AIDS, dandy fever and different fatal diseases. For the wipeout of infectious disease, a drive was started in 1985 that continues to be ongoing. in keeping with the facts and figures of 2013-14, a table of the medical facilities in Asian nation is given below. Total government hospitals in Asian nation 1096 Basic Health Units 5527 Dispensaries 5310 Rural Health Centers 650 Registered doctors 167759 Registered medical mans 13716 Registered nurses 86183 One bed in a very hospital 1647 persons against one bed just one doctor on the market for 1099 folks just one dentist on the market for 13441 folks issues featured by the Health Sector
i. there’s associate degree abundance of diseases and therefore the facilities for treatment area unit restricted and below customary.

ii. Another necessary reason for medical issues in Asian nation is population that is far a lot of compared thereto in developed countries. This overpopulation has paralysed the medical structure of the country and that we area unit featured with unnumberable medical issues. iii. In Pakistan, thanks to totally different contagious and fatal diseases unnumberable folks die annually. Besides protozoal infection, epidemic cholera and T.B., sicknesses like heart diseases, cancer and pressure level also are turning into common. iv. organic process imbalance and poor health area unit making lack of immunity. v. One necessary cause for diseases in Asian nation is that the adulteration of food things. This results in lower health standards in folks. vi. thanks to illiteracy folks aren’t conversant in the principles of health safety. There area unit unnumberable a lot of dirt and garbage everyplace. homes aren’t ethereal and well lit.

Solutions to issues featured by the Health Sector
i. a bigger budget ought to be allotted for the health sector by the govt.

ii. Hospitals ought to be supplied with medical facilities. the issues of shortage of doctors and different workers ought to be overcome. population ought to be controlled.

iii. folks ought to be created conversant in health safety rules and therefore the importance of a diet. Rate of growth ought to be controlled effectively. Steps ought to be taken to see the adulteration of food and drink things.

iv. Non-qualified doctors (popularly referred to as ‘quacks’) ought to be discouraged. The folks ought to be created attentive to the issues that such non-qualified doctors will produce for patients. Major options of Pakistani Society and Culture Meanings of culture The identity of a rustic is thanks to its culture. once the folks of a nation live along for an extended amount of your time, then they need the subsequent similar points: mutual values, tradition and customs, local laws, entertainments, sports, arts and rules of community life. These special aspects build a nation totally different and distinct from different nations. Edward Tyler has given this definition of culture: “Culture is said to all or any kinds of data and humanities, laws and beliefs, traditions and customs. it’s conjointly associated with the thoughts and actions of humans.” Culture could be a whole and it thrives thanks to the intentional or unintentional actions of individuals living in a section. during this means their beliefs, customs and traditions, data and humanities, laws and social behaviours area unit enclosed in it. The notable characteristics of Pakistani culture and society area unit given below: one. Social values all told the provinces and areas of Asian nation, wonderful and distinctive social values area unit found. Respect for elders, love for the young and showing respect for ladies area unit our values. folks share every other’s grief and joy. In rural areas, panchayats (comprised of elders of the village) solve several disputes at the native level. 2. Foods {different|totally totally different|completely different} areas of Asian nation have different food preferences. within the geographic region and Sindh vegetables, pulses, meat and rice area unit favourites. In Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa folks eat meat, dry and recent fruits, wheat, barley and rice. For drinking, folks like milk and Laban (lassi) within the geographic region. In Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, folks like tea (kehwa). 0.5 a century back Sajji and Karahi Gosht were dishes restricted to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and therefore the Northern geographic region. currently these dishes area unit appreciated from metropolis to urban center and Quetta. Pakistani folks get pleasure from ingestion meat. 3. non secular uniformity once Saints unfold Islam within the landmass, many folks embraced Islam. At the current time there’s non secular uniformity in Asian nation. Pakistan’s most significant recognition is Islam even whereas there area unit regional, provincial, lingual, racial and different bases. they provide relatively very little importance to caste and creed, color and race and regional categories. The constitution of Asian nation provides complete protection to the minorities. at the side of non secular uniformity in Asian nation there’s non secular toleration also. 4. Mixed culture within the past people that settled in areas that currently comprise Asian nation came from totally different areas. Whichever cluster came, it brought with it its customs, traditions, festivals, dress, food and magnificence of living. These teams had associate degree influence on one another and a mixed culture emerged. 5. Dress Pakistani dresses area unit created keeping in mind climatical and spiritual wants. within the rural areas of geographic region, men wear breechcloth, kurta, shalwar, tunic and turban. ladies prefer to wear dupatta, trousers and shirt. In urban areas trousers tunic, pants and coat, sherwani and vest area unit most well-liked. A saggy trousers with several folds is most well-liked in Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Sindh. ladies prefer to wear embroidered clothes. On the occasion of a marriage, the bridal dresses area unit terribly lovely. 6. Fairs and urses unnumberable fairs and urses area unit organized annually in Asian nation. These fairs and urses mirror our culture. The urses of the nice saints, Hazrat information Ganj Bakhsh Ali Hajvery, Hazrat Farid-ud-Din Shakr Ganj, Hazrat Shah Rukn Aalim Multani, Hazrat Baha-udDin Zikriya Multani, Hazrat Madhu Lal Hussain (Mela Charaghan), Hazrat Sayedin Shah, Hazrat Sarmast in Sindh, Hazrat Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai in Sindh area unit command yearly. The annual truthful of Sibbi is additionally terribly celebrated.

7. Sports The Pakistani groups of cricket, hockey, and squash etc area unit world celebrated. The tournaments of various sports area unit command at district, divisional, provincial and therefore the national level. Polo is extraordinarily in style in Gilgit and therefore the Northern Areas.

8. non secular festivals the bulk of the population of Asian nation area unit Muslims. They celebrate their totally different religions and social festivals with fervour. These festivals embrace Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ulAzha, Eid-Milad-un-Nabi, Shab-e-Meraj and Shab-e-Baraat. These festivals area unit a crucial a part of our centuries recent culture. Youm-e-Ashura is discovered with non secular respect and dignity.

9. Customs and traditions Asian nation voters behave in keeping with specific customs and traditions on totally different occasions. for instance once a Muslim kid is born, the Azan (call to Prayer) is recited in his/her ear so he/she realizes that thanks to the blessings of God Almighty he/she is born into a Muslim family. once a Muslim passes away, relatives, close to and pricey ones and acquaintances gather at the deceased’s house. when Namaz-e-Janaza, the deceased is buried. For Isaal-e-Sawaab, Quran Khwani is organized. In Asian nation all minorities have the correct to look at the customs of wedding, death, etc. in keeping with their non secular traditions.

10. totally different arts Some necessary buildings of Asian nation, that area unit associate degree attraction for tourists, like burial chamber of the Quaid-e-Azam (Karachi), Alfalah Building, Badshahi masjid, Shahi Qila, Wapda House (all in Lahore), king masjid (Islamabad), masjid Mohabat Khan and Qila of Bala-Hisar (Peshawar), Quaid-e-Azam Residency building (Ziarat) and Qila of Qallat (Qallat). Handicrafts have nice importance in Asian nation. Men and girls build handicrafts. These handicrafts area unit abundant appreciated in foreign countries. The art of painting in Asian nation is extremely distinctive. it’s thought of Pakistan’s identity. within the art of penmanship celebrated calligraphists in Asian nation have created nonpareil masterpieces. Works of art of painting and penmanship happiness to Mughal times and contemporary world area unit displayed within the city deposit and Shahi Qila.

Commonality in Regional Cultures resulting in National Integration and Cohesion

The effects of Moslem values There area unit effects of Moslem values thriving in South Asian cultures on regional cultures of Asian nation. The Muslims coming back to South Asia gave the folks a brand new style whose central values embrace, brotherhood, equality, social justice and honesty. These new values appealed to the native people that were within the grip of a class structure. in a very short span of your time Islam unfold to all or any corners of South Asia. these days these regional cultural similarities area unit a supply of integration and cohesion. Provincial cultures All four provinces of Asian nation have their provincial cultures. There area unit variations in civilization to some extent, gift in their customs and traditions and lifestyles. In spite of regional and linguistic variations, with the passage of your time regional cultural similarities area unit thriving. Despite living in several regions, folks have the sensation of being on the brink of {each different|one another} and have a way of being connected to every other. this offers birth to integration and cohesion. National identity is strong that is sort of encouraging. Era of Muslim rulers within the Indo-Pak landmass, throughout the age of Muslim rulers, there was nice development in data and literature, music, painting, construction, penmanship and languages. In these areas, the distinguished works of Muslim artists area unit our cultural heritage, and area unit a method of our recognition. In spite of various regional affiliations (Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baloch) Pakistani folks have feelings of brotherhood. Common non secular beliefs foster unity. Education System Our education system, the themes and topics instructed also are a supply of focusing attention on cultural similarities. This will increase joint cultural values. For the expansion of culture, the minds of kids area unit trained on national lines. Common cultural values area unit inculcated in them. Regional Mystical (Sufiana) poetry and literature Our regional mystical poetry and literature is additionally a supply of expression of our common cultural heritage. this can be gift equally within the literature of all areas. There area unit lessons of mysticism, humanity, peace and justice, love and cooperation within the works of all authors and poets of national and regional languages. The poets embrace Hazrat ruler Bahu, cake Bulley Shah and Waris Shah from the geographic region, Hazrat Sachal Sarmast and Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai from Sindh, Rahman cake from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gul Khan Naseer from Balochistan. These all non secular personalities gave constant teachings of affection, attachment and brotherhood. native suggests that of knowledge Our suggests that of knowledge also are a supply of expression of comparable and varied cultural components. Cultural similarities prosper thanks to this and national integrity, cohesion and harmony area unit promoted. Urdu language as cohesion Urdu incorporates a important role in manufacturing cohesion in Asian nation. This language isn’t related to a particular region or racial cluster of Asian nation. it’s spoken and understood everywhere Asian nation. it’s Pakistan’s national language also because the language of communication. folks of Asian nation have a special relation with it and a feeling for it. when the creation of Asian nation, Urdu was given the standing of the national language. For its development and propagation Urdu has been created the supply of education. The institution of the Federal Urdu University holds a distinguished place within the progress of Urdu. Urdu has developed greatly however any development is needed so it plays an efficient role as a language for education, courses and for official use.

Major Social issues of {pakistan|Pakistan|Islamic Republic of Asian nation|West Pakistan|Asian country|Asian nation} Some huge social issues of Pakistan area unit given below:

1. Inflation The quick growing population of Asian nation is showing negative effects on its per capita financial gain. Opportunities for savings have gotten fewer and therefore the customary of living is falling.

2. Disorderly state of health and cleanliness several precious lives area unit lost annually thanks to the disorderly state of health and cleanliness. Despite scientific development, folks lack awareness of the principles of excellent health.

3. Illiteracy and content Illiteracy and content area unit major issues featured by Asian nation. folks cannot differentiate between right and wrong thanks to illiteracy, and can’t play a crucial role within the economic development of the country.

4. Weak economy loads of individuals area unit fired thanks to the country’s weak economy. This results in turmoil within the country.

5. economic condition there’s an absence of applicable employment opportunities and thanks to economic condition the quality of living of individuals is low. For the wipeout of economic condition it’s necessary that new employment opportunities ought to be created and resources ought to be improved.

6. Unequal distribution of wealth Unequal distribution of wealth results in the made obtaining richer and therefore the poor turning into poorer. this can be making several issues.

National and Regional Languages

Urdu Urdu is that the national language of Asian nation and conjointly holds the standing of a logo of national identity. it’s a language of communication. throughout the Muslim role in South Asia folks from totally different areas were recruited within the army (lashkar) of these days. These folks were Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Bengali, Baloch, Arab, Irani, Turkish, Hindustani, etc. These folks spoke totally different languages. whereas within the army, their combination up with one another created a brand new language, Urdu (lashkar). Urdu could be a Turkish word which implies ‘army’. Gradual development of Urdu

● within the starting it absolutely was referred to as Hindwi, Hindi and Hindustani. Later it absolutely was referred to as Reekhta. during this means Urdu nonheritable and adjusted totally different names in several ages.

● throughout totally different stages because it modified names, it modified its nature also e.g. ameer Khusro is taken into account to be associate degree ancient writer of Hindi.

● once it absolutely was referred to as Reekhta, Mushafee was celebrated. At the time of its being referred to as Urdu-e-Muala, Mirza Ghalib and Zauq were its celebrated poets.

● In 1647 Emperor created metropolis as his capital rather than Agra. This semiconductor diode to folks speaking Lashkari and metropolis languages living within the same market (place). The emperor prompt that this market be referred to as Urdu-e-Muala. so the language being spoken there was referred to as Urdu-e-Muala or Dehlavi language.

● once this language reached Deccan and Gujarat, it absolutely was conjointly referred to as Deccani and Gujrati. Seeing its quality, the made folks created special efforts for its

development. during this means it rose from being a language of daily communication to the extent of being a language during which literature was written. starting of Urdu Poetry

● in keeping with fashionable analysis ruler Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the ruler of Golkanda, compiled the primary Deewan (collection of poetry).

● The Deccan writer, Wali Decni, is enclosed within the early poets of Urdu.

● The poets of Dehli college United Nations agency widened the scope of Urdu literature embrace Mirza Muhammad Rafi Sauda, Mir Taqi Mir and Khawaja Mir Indo-Aryan. ● Besides metropolis and Deccan, the recognition of Urdu unfold to the states of Oudh and Lukhnow. at the side of Ghazal (collection of couplets) the art of Marsiya telling (elegy) thrived also. Urdu was blessed poets like Anees and Dabir.

● within the early decades of the nineteenth century, there was nice development in Nazm (thematic poem) writing. throughout this point, honored poets like Zauq, Mirza Ghalib and Bahadur Shah Zafar were born. at the side of his Ghazal, Mirza Ghalib’s prose is a crucial treasure of Urdu literature. during this age Maulana Haali wrote the Musaddas (a literary work of vi line units) and cask the complete nation to create them understand their nice heritage.

● when this the sun of the philosophy and poetry of Allama Iqbal (poet of the east) rose. Through his poetry he tried to win over the Muslims of South Asia that they were the inheritors of associate degree honored cultural, civil and philosophic inheritance. Allama Iqbal wrote his poetry in Urdu and Persian each. His poetry was therefore in style amongst the those that some persons had even memorized his drawn-out poems. when Allama Iqbal, underneath the influence of contemporary literature, a progressive movement started in Urdu literature. The role of prose writers within the development of Urdu

● when the 1857 War of Independence there was a distinguished amendment within the political and social conditions. This semiconductor diode to a brand new direction being taken by the artistic Urdu literature.

● attributable to the Aligarh Movement started by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, at the side of Muslims social development, the prose of Urdu literature developed conspicuously also.

● Sir Syed and his contemporaries experimented with Urdu Nazm and prose and introduced Urdu in new forms. during this age the nation’s pain and feelings were bestowed jointly. At constant time Maulana Shibli bestowed Moslem history in a very new manner.

During the struggle for independence and when the creation of Asian nation, there was an environment of freedom and confidence within the development of Urdu literature. totally different authors wrote distinguished works in their varieties of literature. The forms value mentioning embrace analysis and criticism, poetry, novel writing, drama writing and story writing. Regional Languages A study of the start and development of a couple of celebrated regional languages of Asian nation is given below:

1. geographic regioni Punjabi is associate degree ancient language of the Punjab. Its link is with the traditional Darawari or Harpai language. thanks to historical and geographical changes, it’s six major accents and dialects. These area unit referred to as by totally different names. Shah Puri, Majhi, Chachi, Saraiki, Dhani and Pothwari area unit a number of these. the simplest is taken into account to be the Majhi accent that is in use in city and therefore the areas close it. The data and literature of Punjabi may be derived to Mahmood Ghaznavi’s times. The topics of poetry of that point were mysticism, love and romance, and loyalty. This brings to mind the name of Hazrat cake Farid Ganj Shakar. religious leader was conjointly an excellent writer of Punjabi. Then comes the age of ruler Bahu, cake Bulley Shah and Khawaja Farid. at the side of mysticism, the color and effects of the social and political scenario of their age were dominant in their works. The expression of those may be seen in special and ordinarily understood symbols. this can be the explanation for his or her verse being therefore in style amongst folks. people tale incorporates a special position in Punjabi poetry. The celebrated poets United Nations agency gave people tale a poetic bit area unit Waris Shah (Qissa Heer Ranjha), Hashim Shah (Qissa Sassi Punnu), Hafiz Barkhurdar (Qissa Mirza Sahiban), Fazal Shah (Qissa Sohni Mahiwal) etc. These tales not solely have wonderful poetry however conjointly contain forceful reflections of the history of the geographic region of these times – its social, non secular and economic life. Among the works of celebrated Punjabi novel writers, the novels of Dabir Singh, Meeran Singh and Sayedan Buksh Minhas area unit terribly celebrated. there’s no counterpart of Punjabi literature because it presents a forceful, effective and blunt image. it’s the flexibility to specific the tiniest feelings of life in its varieties of narration. These embrace waar, dhot, mahiya, dohay, ghori, sithniyaan, tappay, simmi, boliyaan, etc. when the twentieth century, totally different folks did valuable add novel writing, drama writing, narrative writing, analysis and criticism and different varieties of prose. tv and radio have served to develop fashionable drama writing. within the department of geographic regioni of the University of the Punjab, the courses of MA Punjabi and pH scale.D. are taught.

2. Sindhi Sindhi is associate degree ancient language that is spoken within the province of Sindh. because it is said to Ariyai Family it’s spoken within the river vale and therefore the areas close to it. This language has the consequences of the subsequent languages: Greek, Turkish, Irani, Darawari, Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian and different ancient languages. it’s written within the Arabic script. when the arrival of land, English words were conjointly enclosed in Sindhi, that inflated the literature and vocabulary reserves of Sindhi. Sindhi is stronger than the opposite regional languages of Asian nation thanks to its recent cultural heritage. There area unit several accents of Sindhi. In lower Sindh and its Rajasthani space, Kichi, Kathiawari and Aqdi dialects area unit spoken. In its different area unitas the dialects in use are Kohistani, Saraiki and Vicholi. The high customary of its accent is foremost in knowledgeable literary and print media writings. within the whole of the Muslim world’s native languages, Sindhi is that the maternal language to possess a translation of the Holy Quran. Sindhi was a developed language, it absolutely was a standard apply to browse and write in it, even before the approaching of Islam. when the arrival of Islam, Sindhi too had importance at the side of Arabic. From 1050 to 1350 special contribution was created to form literary and spiritual works. this can be accepted because the early age of literature within the Sindhi language. throughout this point the topics written on were loyalty, determination, self respect and non secular beliefs. This period’s Dastaan, Qissa and Gunaan area unit value mentioning. Gunaan could be a distinctive sort of poetry. Sufi saints of this point (belonging to totally different colleges of thought) unfold the teachings of Islam through poetry. The Sufi poets like Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai and Sachal Sarmast had enriched Sindhi literature through their exemplary poetry. This age is named the golden age of Sindhi literature. Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai created distinguished the dignity of the common life and poor labour category. He adopted a mode of exploitation similes in poetry. He took his basic subject material from Sindhi people tales. that’s why the echo of his poetry may be detected in each corner of Sindh. His assortment of poetry is named Shah Jo Rasalo. The extremely honored writer Sachal Sarmast wrote poetry in Sindhi, Urdu, Saraiki, Punjabi and Persian. He was a person with Sufi qualities. In mysticism his special topic was Unity of Existence (Wahdat ul Wajood). at the side of poetry, in prose conjointly a wealth of literature was gathered thanks to the collective efforts of lecturers, students and preachers. The efforts of Abul Hassan Sindhi during this respect area unit distinguished. He used the Arabic script for writing Sindhi to form a brand new script.

Another name during this context is of Makhdoom Muhammad Hashim. He was an excellent non secular scholar. He wrote concerning one hundred fifty books in Persian and Sindhi. the subject of those books is that the elaboration and correction of spiritual beliefs. a number of these books still have the role after all books in Madrassas and in Jamia Al Azhar (Egypt). throughout this era Akhwand Aziz Ullah wrote a prose translation of the Holy Quran. throughout British rule Sindhi developed loads. The name of Mirza Qaleech Beg is extremely necessary for this age. He wrote nearly four hundred books on poetry and on different topics. throughout land reign, the political and social life within the landmass underwent several necessary changes. People’s awareness grew stronger. throughout this age Sindhi journalism flourished. In 1970 Maulvi Malaah wrote the interpretation of the Holy Quran in verse. Bait, Wai, Kaafi and Molood area unit special varieties of Sindhi literature. fashionable literary trends affected Sindhi also. when Asian nation came into being, abundant work has been drained the trendy prose, play literature etc. fashionable writers of Sindhi language have harmonical the trendy trend with the classical one. they need revived all varieties of prose. during this regard, Sindhi language development establishment plays a distinguished role. Development in analysis and criticism has conjointly been created.

3. Pushto Pushto or Pakhto is spoken within the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It traces its origin to Bakhat or Bakht, a section in Islamic State of Afghanistan concerning 5 thousand years agone. during this affiliation the speakers of this language area unit referred to as Pashtun or Pakhtun, later replaced by Pakhto or Pushto. Like different languages, literature during this language began in poetry.The first book of prose was written within the last decade of the eighteenth century. The name of this book is Patah Khazana. By the tip of the thirteenth century, Pushto literature had absorbed the external influences. the employment of Arabic and Persian words may be seen in it. There area unit 3 accents within the Pushto language. One accent is of the northeast region, the second of the southwest region and therefore the third is of the Zai tribe. Basically, the sole distinction between the 3 is of the pronunciation. emeer Krore is believed to be the primary writer of nazm (poem) within the Pushto language. within the reigns of Ghias-ud-din Balban and Sher Shah Suri qaseeda and madh forms weren’t a part of Pushto literature. Researchers found associate degree recent, writing, ‘Tazkara-tul-Aulia’ comprising 1200 pages, from that it may be deduced that the Pushto poets of this era conjointly tried their hands at the hamd-o-naat forms. In Mahmud Ghaznavi’s era, someone named Saifullah truly ready Pushto alphabet that continues to be in use. The topics value mentioning that feature prominently in Pushto poetry area unit liberty, honour, war, etc. Mysticism is mentioned too. Mohammedan Mast is acknowledged the leader during this kind. Khushal Khan Khattak could be a nice Pushto writer. additionally to being a master of the pen, he was a master of the weapon system too. He expressed this in these words “Those moments area unit value seeing for Khushal, once the weapon system and therefore the suit of armor clink”. In his poetry, Khushal Khan has written concerning totally different fields of life. The distinguished topics in them area unit love of the Creator, love of a fellow creature, mysticism, behavior, liberty and bravado. The second greatest writer of Pushto literature is Rahman cake. This humble writer was continually immersed in moods of romance and mysticism and therefore the same area unit the topics of his poetry. in keeping with him, romance is that the reason for the creation of the universe. Rahman cake holds a high position within the Pushtun society. the fashion of Khushal Khan Khattak and Rahman cake is sort of a milestone in Pushto literature and its impression may be found within the poets that came later. In Pushto literature people songs area unit associate degree unequalled quality. Pushto literature has several aspects however chaarbeeta, tappa, laimkai, etc. area unit its terribly celebrated forms. Some poets have created the various varieties of people songs, the subject of their poetry. These poets embrace Noor Din, Mohammedan Maqsood, etc. Pushto prose started developing within the twentieth century. when Asian nation came into being, underneath the influence of contemporary education, the writers, United Nations agency possessed new concepts and thoughts did distinguished add writing a Pushto wordbook, descriptive linguistics writing, biography, story writing, novel and drama. 4. Iranian language The Iranian language language is spoken within the province of Balochistan in Asian nation. it’s associated with Aryan languages. despite what number viewpoints there area unit concerning however recent the Iranian language language is or concerning its families. it’s still a incontrovertible fact that the Iranian language literature’s age of development was when the creation of Asian nation. There area unit 2 main accents of the Iranian language language, one Sulemani and therefore the different Makrani. though the Iranian language script was already fictitious however the traditional Iranian language literature came terribly late in written kind. In totality, Iranian language poetry may be divided into 3 elements. In Iranian language poetry, the a lot of necessary and initial half is of poetry. The topics enclosed in it area unit bravery, grandeur, honour and bravado. The second half is of romantic poetry. In it, beauty and romance, youth and different topics area unit found. The third half covers people stories. In it, the varieties of lori and motak are presenting the reflection of social life from the past times. In 1840, the work of introducing the traditional Iranian language poetry began. In Iranian language literature, in recent and classical prose, the tales of Mir Chakar Khan, Hassan Zandu, Pir Nag Wagran Nazsha, Mureed Wahani, etc area unit celebrated and in style. the primary book within the history of the Iranian language language and literature was written by Sher Kamsir eucalypt. within the Iranian language poetry of land era the topics of mysticism, morals and emotion against the Britishers area unit found. during this era, the writer of high calibre was Mast Tawakli. when the creation of Asian nation, by adding and removing the letters of the Urdu alphabet, a top quality script was developed for Iranian language. Iranian language magazines and journals marked the speedy development of Iranian language literature. In 1960, with the publication of the primary Iranian language magazine, journalism and literature found a brand new direction within the Iranian language language. The Balochistan University started the pH scale.D. degree within the Iranian language language. 5. Kashmiri in keeping with fashionable analysis, the Kashmiri language is connected to the language of the Indus vale. it’s many celebrated dialects from that Musalmanki, Hindki, Gandoro and Gami area unit a lot of in style. Gandoro is taken into account to be a a lot of literary non-standard speech. Kashmiri literature is split into the subsequent 5 totally different eras: within the initial era, people songs were promoted. during this reasonably poetry, the expression of the collective thinking and feeling of the Kashmiri society is found. within the Kashmiri non-standard speech, it’s referred to as Rauf Yalol. within the second era, topics of Ilahyat were written concerning. The celebrated writer of this era was Shati Kanth. within the third era, the apply of giving a poetic bit to the stories of romance began. Hiba Khatoon was the foremost poet of this era. within the poetic stories of this era in at the side of Persian and Arabic, stories were conjointly bestowed within the Kashmiri language. during this affiliation, the names of Armani Laal Mohammedan fakeer etc area unit distinguished within the Kashmiri language and literature. the person behind this was Mahmud Gami. The fifth era prospered underneath the shadow of contemporary literature. This retains new thoughts and trends. Ghulam Ahmed Mahjor holds a special position during this era. additionally to native creations within the Kashmiri literature, translations from different languages were done conjointly. Iranian literature, particularly when translations of ghazal and masnavi, was conjointly adopted in Kashmiri poetry as an inventive kind. geographical areaiat is instructed as an issue at the Azad Kashmir University. 6. Saraiki The Saraiki language is spoken on each side of the stream Indus within the central regions of Asian nation. Its main districts within the province of the {punjab|Punjab|geographical area unita|geographic area|geographical region|geographic region} are Mianwali, Bhakkar, Layyah,Muzaffargarh, Dera Ghazi Khan, Raajanpur, Multan, Khanewal, Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur etc. apart from geographic region, it’s utilized in the districts of the opposite 3 provinces too. for instance in Sindh-Kashmore, Jacobabad and Sukkur, in Balochistan- Barkhan, Naseerabad and Jhal Magsi, in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Dera Ismail Khan and Tank, an oversized variety of individuals area unit Saraiki speaking. the foremost poets of Saraiki literature embrace Hazrat Sachal Sarmast (RA) and Hazrat Khawaja Ghulam Fareed (RA). Articles, short stories and dramas area unit being written during this language. This language too is developing quickly. 7. Brahvi In Asian nation, the bulk of the folks speaking the Brahvi language live within the Kalat regions and its close areas within the province of Balochistan. Brahvi is usually written within the Persian and Arabic script. people literature is gift during this language of that the story of Laila Mor is a lot of celebrated. within the eighteenth century, leader Dada wrote ‘Tohfa tul Ajaib’ that is taken into account to be the primary precious customary literature within the Brahvi language. After this, Maulana Nebo Khan and Maulana Muhammad Dinpuri conspicuously supplemental to the nice literary treasures of this language. within the Brahvi language, facet by facet with the translations of the Holy Quran, the writings on totally different non secular topics also are gift. what is more, newspaper and magazines are revealed in it too. the nice Brahvi writers embrace Doctor Abdur Rahman Brahvi, Nadir Qambrani Piral Muhammad Zubairani etc. For education and analysis during this language, the department of Brahvi is established within the Balochistan University. The Brahvi Academy established in Quetta is taking part in a crucial role in promoting the Brahvi language and literature. 8. Hindko The Hindko language is spoken within the districts of metropolis and Attock within the geographic region, and within the districts of Abbottabad, Mansehra, Haripur, metropolis and Kohat in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. to push this language, ‘Idara- Farogh-e-Hindko’, Peshawar, ‘Bazme-ilm-o-fun’ Abbottabad and ‘Halqa Yaaraan’ Shinkiari area unit taking part in a serious role. To develop this language any, a monthly magazine ‘Farogh’ is revealed underneath the oversight of Aurangzeb Ghaznavi. To develop the Hindko language, personalities like prof Sufi Abdul Rasheed, commissioned military officer Fazal Akbar, Asif Saqib, Sharif Hussain Shah, prof Muhammad Fareed, prof Yahya Khalid, Nazir Kasalvi and Muhammad Hanif have worked onerous. Ph.D. degrees area unit being awarded during this language too.

Role of minorities in Asian nation

The rights of the minorities are totally protected within the 1973 constitution of Asian nation. in keeping with the constitution, they need full rights. they need complete liberty to worship in keeping with their religions, perform customs, transmit and publish their non secular principles and established their own non secular organizations. they need been given separate illustration in Pakistan’s constitution. the govt abolished the separate system of elections and place into apply the mixed system of elections. during this means, the long–awaited demand of the minorities was fullfilled. within the National Assembly, 10 seats are reserved for the minorities; within the geographic region Assembly eight, Sindh Assembly nine, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly eleven and Balochistan Assembly three seats are reserved. In our federal and provincial cupboards, principally a non-Muslim minister is enclosed. within the economic field too, voters area unit given equal opportunities so they’ll improve their money conditions. to get government employment, the minorities have constant rights because the Muslims. The constitution of Asian nation provides equal political, economic and social rights to all or any voters thanks to that smart citizenship is promoted. The minorities living in Asian nation ought to remember of their rights and responsibilities. it’s their responsibility to be trustworthy to their country. Rising especially forms of prejudices, they have to elect a people’s representative United Nations agency ought to work for the country’s stability.

Status of the minorities within the light-weight of the Quaid-e-Azam’s (RA) speech on eleventh August, 1947

On eleventh August, 1947 the Quaid-e-Azam (RA) whereas creating a speech relating to the place of minorities said: “ when the partition of India, for minorities to be in one state or the opposite was inevitable. each one of you whether or not the primary, second or last national of this state has equal rights, privileges and obligations. despite what relation somebody had with you within the past, despite what his color, caste or creed is, despite to what community he belongs. there’ll be without stopping to the progress you create. during this state of Asian nation you’re free. move to your temples, mosques or different places of worship. The running of the state has nothing to try and do with the faith, caste, creed or religion you belong to. As you need to recognize with relation to history, it slow agone, the conditions in England were worse than what exists in today’s India. Roman Catholics and Protestants committed atrocities against each other. Even today, there area unit countries wherever a particular sect faces discrimination and restrictions area unit obligatory on its members. By the grace of God Almighty, we have a tendency to area unit beginning our journey in such conditions associate degreed in an age wherever such discrimination isn’t inspired. No distinction is created between totally different castes and faiths. we have a tendency to area unit taking a begin with this principle that we have a tendency to area unit equal voters of our state. A journalist asked the Quaid-e-Azam (RA), “Can you provides a temporary statement, as the Governor General, concerning the matter of the minorities?” The Quaid-e-Azam (RA) replied: Presently, i’m a appointed governor. allow us to assume for a flash that on fifteenth August, 1947, I shall truly be the governor of Asian nation. when this assumption, let Maine tell you that the minorities are protected. despite that religion they belong to. Their faith and religion are safe in their freedom to worship, there’ll be no interference in their freedom to worship. Their religions, faiths, their life and their culture are secure. with none discrimination of caste and creed and religion, all told respects, they shall be voters of Asian nation. they’ll be supplied with rights and privileges. Minorities can play their role within the affairs of the state as long as they’re trustworthy and well-wishers of the state within the true sense. As long as I actually have power, they ought to not have any doubts. I expect that the Muslims in India can receive constant reasonably truthful treatment that we have a tendency to will provide the non-Muslim minorities. The minorities have continually tried to perform conspicuously all told the fields. within the field of law, the name of Justice AR Cornelius doesn’t want any introduction. He has rendered valuable services. He had experience in shariah law and Fiqh. He was the magistrate of the Supreme Court. He compete a serious role in compilation the 1973 constitution. Justice Badi-uz-Zaman Kakaos had nice data of the Quran and way. He remained the decide of the Supreme Court for eight years. Justice (Retd) genus Rana Bhagwan Das was a decide within the Supreme Court too. Doctor Abdus Salam rendered necessary services in physics. captain Eric Gardenhall, commanding officer Nazeer Latif, commanding officer Marvin Middlecoat, Squadron Leader Peter Agatha Christie and Flight Lieutenant William, D. HarrowLeigh received high civil and military awards for his or her wonderful performances. Harcharan Singh was the primary Sikh officer to be enclosed within the Asian nation Army. within the field of health, Doctor Ruth Pfau worked for the Hansen’s disease patients until her death. Doctor Drago of Mirpurkhas was particularly celebrated for treating poor patients. He received the Presidential Award too. within the field of sports, Anil Dalpat and Anthony D’Souza in cricket, archangel Masih in soccer, and in water travel, Behram D. Avari, area unit celebrated names.

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