INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

Unit 17

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

Q.1 What is meant by data technology and telecommunication?

Ans. The methodology accustomed store data, to rearrange it for correct use and to speak it to others is termed data technology.

TELECOMMUNICATION

The method accustomed communicate data to faraway places instantly is termed telecommunication.

Q.2. What does one perceive by data and communication technology?

Ans. data AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)

The scientific ways and suggests that to store, method and transmit immense amounts {of data|of data|of knowledge} in seconds with the assistance of electronic equipment is thought as information and communication technology.

Q 3. what’s distinction between information and information?

Ans. The processed information is termed data. Whereas information ar facts that ar employed by programs to supply helpful data.

Q.4. What ar the suggests that of telecommunication?

Ans: the strategy accustomed communicate data to faraway places instantly is decision id telecommunication. .

The main suggests that of telecommunication are:

Telephone
Cellular or mobile
(iii) teleprinter

(iv) Fax machine

(v) Radio

(vi) tv

(vii) net

Q.5. What ar the elements of knowledge technology? Clearly indicate the perform of every element.

Ans. element OF COMPUTER-BASED data system (CBIS)

There ar 5 elements of computer-based data system. These ar known as the elements of knowledge technology.

Hardware
The term hardware suggests that to machinery. This includes the central process unit (CPU), and al! of its’ supporting equipments, like input devices, output devices, storage devices and communication devices.

Software
The term software package suggests that the pc programs and also the manuals that support them. laptop programs ar machine-readable directions that direct the electronic equipment among the hardware elements of the CBIS to supply helpful data from delta.

Data
Data ar facts that ar employed by program to supply helpful data. it’s going to be within the kind of text, graphic or figure which will be recorded which have specific that means.

Procedure ‘
These ar set of informations and rules to style and use data system These ar written in manuals and documents to be used.

People
Every CBIS wants folks if it’s to be helpful, United Nations agency influence the success or failure of knowledge systems.

Q.6. What does one mean by flow of information?

Ans. Flow of knowledge suggests that the transfer of knowledge from one place to a {different} through different electronic and optical equipments. In phonephone, data is distributed through wires within the kind of electrical signals. In radio, tv and telephone, data is distributed either through house within the kind of magnetic force waves, or through optical fibres within the kind of lightweight.

Q.7. What ar the essential elements of any communication system? justify their functions.

Ans.There ar 3 essential a part of any communication systems:

Transmitter
Transmission channel
Receiver
The transmitter processes the sign.

The channel is that the medium that sends the signal from supply

to the destination.

The receiver takes the sign from the channel and delivers it to the electrical device once process it. The receiver might amplify the sign to atone for transmission loss.

Q.8. however do electrical signal ar transmitted through wires?

Ans. TRANSMISSION OF ELECTRICAL SIGNAL THROUGH WIRES

A simple phonephone model sends voice within the kind of electrical signal from one place to a different. It consists of a metal reed, an electrical coil, and a vibratory diaphragm. trendy phonephone additionally uses diaphragms to show voices into electrical signal that ar transmitted over phone lines. phonephone symbols has 2 parts:

(i) mouthpiece

(ii) phone

The mouthpiece and receiver contain carbon granules and a skinny metal diaphragm, once we speak into the phone, the sound vibrations additionally vibrate the diaphragm. a small vibration of the diaphragm compresses the carbon ANd therefore an electrical current will flow through the wire.

The process is reversed at the opposite finish of the road by the receiver. The electrical current flowing through AN magnet within the receiver produces a variable flux. This flux attracts the skinny metal diaphragm within the receiver, causing.it to vibrate. This vibration of the diaphragm produces sound waves.

Q.9. what’s radio standardisation circuit? Describe its operating.

Arts. Radio standardisation circuit consists of coils of 5 wires wounded on a rod that is connected to the variable capacitors. The tuned circuit selects signals of specific frequency. It doesn’t amplify the signals from transmitters with slightly lower or higher frequencies. The voltage rises and falls because the frequency of the received signal will increase or decreases relative to the constant frequency of the generator.

Q.10. justify in short the transmission of radiowaves through space?

Ans. so as to send data over on distance, it’s to be superimposed on magnetic force waves.

Sound waves created at the station ar become electrical signals through mike. These electrical signals ar then introduced into the transmission antenna that consists of 2 metal rods. Signals falling on the

transmission antenna oscillate the fees that then emit these electrical signals within the kind of magnetic force radibwaves.

At the receiving finish, the receiver selects and amplifies the modulated signal. The detector then extracts the knowledge signal and delivers it to the receptor.

Q.11. however lightweight signals ar sent through optical fibres?

Ans. Waves of actinic ray have a way higher frequency than that of radiowaves. This means, rate of causing data with lightweight beams is larger than that with radiowaves or microwaves. AN fiber has been used as instrumentality for this purpose.

Light that enters the core at one finish of the fiber goes straight and hits the inner wall (the cladding) of fibre optics. If the angle of incidence with protective cover is a smaller amount than the angle of incidence, a number of the sunshine can escape the fibre optics and is lost (Fig. 17.4). However, if the angle of incidence is larger than the angle of incidence, lightweight is completely mirrored into the fibre optics. Then the entirely mirrored beam of sunshine travels in an exceedingly line till it hits the inner wall once more, and so on.

Q.12. What ar radiowaves?

Ans. RADIOWAVES

These ar magnetic force waves and that they travel with the speed of sunshine.

Q.13. what’s fax machine? Describe its operating.

Ans. FAX MACHINE

Fax machine is that the suggests that to send the copy of documents from one place to a different through phonephone lines.

A fax machine primarily scans a page to convert its text and graphic into electrical signals and transmits it to anothe’r fax machine through phonephone line. The receiving machine converts the signal and uses a printer to form the copy of the massage that was sent.

Q.14. what’s ceil phone? Describe its operating.

Ans. A telephone is form of radio having 2 approach communication. telephone network system consists of cells and Base Station (BSs) and Mobile switch Centre (MSC).

A base station may be a wireless communication station got wind of at a specific geographical location. The geographic region lined by one base station >s referred to as a cell. The cluster of cells forms a cluster. All BSs among a cluster ar connected to a MS by victimization land lines. The MS stores data concerning the subscribes situated among the cluster and is to blame for leading calls to them once a caller calls another telephone, sound waves of caller ar reborn into radiowaves signal. This radio emission of specific frequency is distributed to the native base station of the caller wherever the signal is assigned a selected frequency This signal is then sent to the bottom station of the receiver through MS. Then the decision is transferred to the telephone of the receiver. Mobile receiver once more changes the radiowaves into sound.

Q.1.5. what’s photophone?

Ans. PHOTOPHONE

We can communicate with our relatives or friends-on photophone with the physical look of every alternative.

In the photophone, contrary to a standard phonephone, speakers will see the photographs of every alternative. By victimization the photograph and phone numbers of our friends or members of the family on this phonephone we will decision them by pressing the pad with their photos.

Q.16. what’s main distinction between phonephone and cellular phone?

Ans. regulation of phonephone is comparable to telegraph {in that|during which|within which} voice is reborn into electrical signals which ar then transmitted on a wire. In trendy network exchange, contacts ar created through fiber system.

Whereas radio technology, is applied in cellular phones. A celjular phone carries a sender and a receiver within it. It sends and receives messages within the kind of radiowaves

Q.17. Why cable T.V is most popular over traditional T.V. transmission?

Ana. once we use table T.V. we will receive prime quality footage and sound through this because of its terribly low transmission losses. Whereas in T.V transmission, image and thusund quality wouldn’t be so sensible.

Q.18. what’s a laptop? what’s the memorisation of computer in our everyday life?

Ans. COMPUTER

A laptop is AN electronic data processor that’s used for adding, subtracting and multiplying.

Computer plays a crucial memorisation in our daily we have a tendency to. fn offices, computes, art used for making ready letters, documents and reports. In hotels, computers ar us*d,&r advance booking of rooms, making ready bills and providing enquiry services 4n railways, computers ar uted for rail reservation, printing of tickets and preparation of reservation charts! Doctors use computers for diagnosis unhealthiness and treatment of diseases Architects use computers for building planning and planning. In meteorology department, computers ar used for prediction. In short, we will say that laptop has become the fundamental want of nowadays.

Q.19. What does one mean by hardware and software?

Ans. HARDWARE

keyboard, monitor, printer, scanner, mouse, etc. ar hardware.

The directions, or programs, that ar put in within the hardware to perform totally different tasks ar known as software package

It means, Window and UNIX system Operatjng System (OS) ar software package

Q 20. what’s Central process Unit(CPU)?

Ans. The part, of laptop that transists directions and performs arithmetic calculations is thought as mainframe.

It-contains a little rectangular chip known as silicon chip. it’s the ‘brain of laptop.

Q.21. what’s meant by a programme?•

Ans. All the work is finished by a laptop within the lightweight of instruction that is termed a “programme” and is saved in it memory.

Computers preserve this programme and data in their memory as long as we’ want.

Q.22. Differentiate between primary memory and secondary memory

Ans. Primary memory is predicated on physics and consists of integrated circuits (ICs). it’s a Random Access memory (RAM). It vanishes once the pc is transitioned.

Whereas the info storage devices ar typically the secondary memory of the pc. it’s accustomed store the info for good within the laptop once we open a program, information is touched from the memory device into the first storage,

Q.23. What ar storage devices? On what principle do they work?

Ans. device

A device may be a device designed to store data in an exceedingly laptop.

Principal of Storage Devices –

Storage devices work on totally different principles victimization physics, magnetism and optical device technology

Q.24. Name totally different data storage devices and describe their use.

Ans. the knowledge storage devices ar

Audio and video cassettes
Hard disk
Magnetic disks
Floppy disk
Computer disk (CDs)
Flash drives
Audio and Video Cassettes

These devices ar supported magnetism. Audio cassettes accommodates a tape of magnetic material on that sound is recorded {in a|during a|in AN exceedingly|in a very} specific kind of a flux For this purpose mike changes sound waves into electrical pulses that ar created by an electronic equipment

Hard Disk

A hard disk may be a rigid, magnetically sensitive disk that spins quickly and endlessly within the pc A typical disk consists of many platters, every accessed via a read/write head on a transferrable arm. a tough disk would possibly hold a whole lot Cr thousand of megabytes of knowledge,

Magnetic Disk

A disk is coated with a layer of some magnetic material. The read/write head of magnetic discs ar almost like the record relay head on a magnetic recorder It magnetizes elements of the surface to record data. The storage device may be a digital medium.

Floppy Disk

A floppy disc may be a little magnetically sensitive, versatile plastic wafer housed in plastic case. it’s coated with a magnetic chemical compound almost like the fabric accustomed coat cassettes and video tapes Most person computers embody a minimum of one Winchester drive that enables the pc to write down it and browse from disc.

Floppies lack the storage capability and drive speed for several massive jobs. information hold on on floppy disks is additionally subject to loss as a results of stray magnetic fields.. Floppy disks ar reliable just for short storage and can’t be used longer

Computer Disks (CDs)

This is supported optical device technology it’s a wrought plastic disc on whrch digital information is hold on within the kind of microscopic refleqting and non-reflecting spots that ar known as “pits” and “lands” severally. Pits ar the spiral tracks encoded on the highest surface of CD and lands ar the areas between pits A fine “laser beam scans the surface of the rotating disk to scan the info

Flash Derives

It may be an electronic primarily based device ANd consists of knowledge storage ICs A flash drive is a little device which will be accustomed transport files from one laptop to a different

A flash drive is straightforward to use Once we’ve created a paper or alternative work, we have a tendency to cart merely plug our flash drive into a USB port. A flash drive also will are available handy if you’re ready to print out school assignment at college. we will write a paper reception, put it aside to our flash drive, and so plug the drive into a USB port on a faculty laptop.

Q.25. Ans. what’s the distinction between a disc and a tough disk?

Floppy

Floppy disk is formed of versatile plastic.

It is coated with magnetic attraction compound

It is inserted into the drive once it’s to be used.

Floppy disk has little storage capability of concerning 1MB – 3MB

Hard Disk

Hard disk is formed of aluminum
it is coated with a layer of

magnetized material like (Fe Co Kr, Ni).

It is put in within the system unit.
Hard disk has higher storage
capacity than disc e.g. 10 GB, 40GB then on.

Hard disk is formed by change of integrity several plates. ___ ____
5.It is closed a jacket.

6 it’s one sheet of versatile plastic

7.t is additionally housed in an exceedingly protecting jacket.

Q.26. once a CD is termed a tough disk and a floppy?

Ans. If the CD is formed of metal ,it is known as disk and if it’s product of soft elastic material then it’s known as a floppy.

Q.27. What does one perceive by the terms word processing’? Describe is use

Ans. data processing

Such a use of laptop through that we will write a letter, prepare reports and books, develop any document and see it “on the screen once writing is thought as word processing”

Uses of data processing

Using this program we will edit the document, add some new text or delete the previous text or create amendments in it. we will move text from one page to a different even from one document to a different. Document is hold on in memory and its print can even be taken. By suggests that of recent data processing, we* will write it in several designs and in several colors. we will additionally use graphics

Q.28, what’s meant by information management? Describe its use.

Ans. information MANAGEMENT

To collect data for a special purpose and to store it in an exceedingly laptop in an exceedingly file kind which can facilitate now and then once required, is termed information managing.

Uses of knowledge Management .

The educational establishments, libraries, hospitals and industries store the involved data by information management. Additions and deletions ar created within the information per the necessity, that helps within the improvement of the management of the establishments

In massive division stores and super markets optical scanners ar accustomed scan, with the assistance of irradiation, the barcodes of a product that indicate the amount at that this product is recorded within the register during this approach. the detail concerning its worth is obtained It additionally helps, putting the order merchandise|of products} being solid in an exceedingly profusion and to determine concerning less commercialism goods.

Q.29 what’s meant by graphic designing?

Ans. GRAPHIC planning

The process to draw a needed line or footage on a monitor victimization mouse or keyboard is termed the graphic planning.

Q.30. what’s internet? net is a helpful supply of data and data. Discuss.

Ans. INTERNET

Internet may be a network of huge variety of computers that is major supply of knowledge and world communication.

Access of net to folks is increasing day by day net may be a helpful supply {of information|of data|of data} and knowledge. With broadband we will transfer data in seconds. E-mail transmits and receives our messages virtually in a flash {we can|we will|we ar able to} see our friends and relatives across the continents A we have a tendency tob-came permits America to listen to and see the person we are talking to.

Q.31. What ar the most service used on the internet?

Ans. the most services used on the web embody

1 net browsing—this perform permits users to look at web content employing a browser.

2 E-mail-allows folks to send and receive text messages.

Q.32 net has provided to be terribly helpful to use. Discuss.

Ans. net is incredibly helpful to America as a result of it:

(i) provides quicker communication

(ii) may be a massive supply data

(iii) may be a supply of recreation

(iv) provides access to social media

(v) provides access to on-line services

(vi) provides E-commerce

(vi) provides E-Learning

Q.33. What ar the applications of internet?

Ans. APPLICATIONS OF net

There ar 2 main applications of internet:

i .Browsers two.Electronic mail

Browsers

A browser is AN application that provides a window to the net. All browsers ar designed to. show the -pages of knowledge situated at websites round the word. the foremost well-liked browsers on the market nowadays embody net person The word Opera. Safari. Mozilla Firefox: Chrome etc.

Electronic Mail

One of the foremost wide used application of net is piece of email (or E-mail) that provides in no time delivery of messages to any enabled web site on the web Communication through e-mail is a lot of fast and reliable Through our E-mail we will communicate with our friends and establishment with a lot of ease and pace.

Q thirty four What ar the benefits of E-mail?

Ans benefits OF E-MAIL

Some benefits of E-mail ar as follows

Fast Communication

We can send messages anyplace within the world instantly.

Cost Free Service

if we’ve a web access, then we will avail the e-mail service freed from price.

Simple to Use

After initial got wind of of e-mail account it’s straightforward to use.

More economical

We can send our message to several friends or folks solely in one action

Q.35. What does one mean by E-commerce?

Ans. E-commerce is that the approach of doing business on the net. we will order our favorite book or the other things on line. as an example, Amazon.com has been commercialism books, music and video with success for years. As time passes on, supermarkets and commercialism firms are seeing a lot of of their merchandise on line

Q.36 What ar the risks of ICT to society and also the environment?

Ans. ICT is dangerous to the society and also the setting within the following way:

1 .Over use of laptop is dangerous for our health laptop crimes also are quite common recently. ‘

Theft is that the commonest kind of crime. Computes ar accustomed steal cash, goods, data and laptop resources.
Piracy is another issue of importance that is common on laptop it’s the misappropriated duplication of copyright material like books, papers and software package etc.
Hacking continues to be another criminality that is committed on computers laptop hackers will injury some organization by stealing their credit cards and valuable data.
Q.37. Discuss the role of knowledge Technology at school education

Ans. we have a tendency to live within the age of knowledge technology data technology has become half and parcel of the trendy world The role of IT in education is incredibly very important

The use of IT at school education has modified the normal and ancient ways of teaching and learning. Now-a-days IT provides many sources to reinforce the teaching skills and wit nowadays academics ar victimization multimedia system in room to form the teaching and learning method a lot of vivid ana effective. during this trendy age, students ar victimization laptop and net for the preparation of their-projects, assignments and examinations.

The role of IT at school education can not be neglected actually use of laptop at school education has created it easier for academics to impart data and for college students to accumulate it the employment of IT in faculties has created the method of teaching and learning a lot of interacting and innovative. the employment of audio-visual aids in room teaching invite? larger interest from students.

SUMMARY

The methodology used-to store data, to rearrange it for correct use and to speak it to others is termed data technology.

The ways and means ar accustomed communicate data to overseas instantly is termed telecommunication

Information and Communication technology (ICT) is outlined because the scientific ways and suggests that to store method and transmit immense amounts of knowledge in seconds with the assistance of equipment.

Flow of knowledge suggests that the transfer of the knowledge kind one place to a {different} through different electronic and optical instrumentality

There ar 5 elements that has to close so as to supply a laptop primarily based data system (CBIS) .These ar known as the elements of knowledge technology These ar. hardware, software, data, procedures and other people

Information storing devices store the knowledge for later use and edges These embody perceptible cassettes, video tapes, compact discs, optical device disks, floppy disks, and onerous disks

Telephone changes sound into electrical signals ana sends these signals to the receiver The receiver changes the electrical signals once more to sound by a system fitted within the receiver

Mobile phone may be a type of radio with 2 approach communication It sends and receives the message within the kind of radiowaves

Fax machine is that the suggests that to send the copy of documents kind one place to • another through phonephone lines

Radio is AN instrument that transmits the sound waves to America

Computer is AN electronic data processor that’s used for adding, subtracting and multiplying.

Hardware suggests that the a part of a laptop that we will see and bit i.e. keyboard, monitor, printer, scanner, mouse, etc

The most necessary piece of hardware is that the central process unit (CPU) it’s the brairv of laptop the half that interprets directions and performs arithmetic calculations .

Software suggests that the directions, or programs, that ar put in within the hardware to perform totally different tasks Window and Unux operational Systems (OS) ar samples of software package. .

Word processing is such a use of laptop thiough that we will write a letter, prepare reports AN books By suggests that of this we will develop any document and see it .on the screen once writing

To collect data for a special purpose and to store it in an exceedingly compjler in an exceedingly file kind, which can facilitate now and then once required, is termed information managing

Internet is network of huge variety of computers that is major supply of knowledge and world communication.

CONCEPTUAL queries

17.1 Why fiber is a lot of great tool for the communication process?

Ans. Waves of actinic ray have a way a lot of frequency than that of radiowaves so, rate of causing data within the kind of lightweight signals victimization fiber is iarger than that with radiowaves or microwaves through house or electrical signals through wires

Also, we will use fiber to send terribly high information over long distances with none loss

17.2 that is a lot of reliable disc or a tough disk?

Ans. Floppies ar cheap, convenient however aren’t a lot of reliable as they lack the storage capability and drive speed kind several massive jobs. there’s additionally a risk of knowledge loss hold on on floppy. we have a tendency to don’t face such issues within the care of disk. Which is, so a lot of reliable than a floppy.

17.3 what’s the distinction between RAM and memory memories?

Ans. the most distinction between the RAM and memory is their use to store information. once a laptop is turned ON and programs ar being run, the program data is hold on in RAM for higher potency and speed. once the pc is turned OFF any data hold on in RAM is lost. thus RAM is employed for the storage of memory briefly within the memory, information is hold on for good and retains there even once laptop is turned OFF. RAM is that the primarily storage device whereas the memory is secondary storage device

 

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