Essay on Human Evolution
- Introduction .
- Views regarding the evolution of human beings
- Earlier forms of humans & their parent resemblance
- Origin of humans
- Technical division of human beings
- Afarensis & their origin
- Homo erectus – an evolutionary ancestor of modern humans
- Creationalists & the opposition to the above theory
- Ambiguity regarding the human remains of earlier times
- Opposition to evolution theory
Evolution is the complexity of processes by which living organisms established on earth and have been expanded and modiﬁed through theorized changes in form and function. Human evolution is the biological and cultural development of the species Homo sapiens, or human beings. Humans evolved from apes because of their similarities. Humans had a decrease in the size of the face and teeth that evolved. Early humans are classiﬁed in tens different type families. Creationists believe that humans were always humans.
Humans are classiﬁed in the mammalian family Primates. In this arrangement, humans, along with our extinct close ancestors, and our nearest living relatives, the African apes, are sometimes placed together in the family Hominidae because of genetic similarities. Two-legged walking seems to be one of the earliest of the major hominine characteristics to have evolved. In the course of human evolution the size of the brain has more than tripled. The increase in brain size may be related to changes in hominine behaviour. The third major trend in hominine development is the gradual decrease in the size of the face and teeth.
According to the Microsoft Encarta, the fossil evidence for direct ancestors of modem humans is divided into the category Australopithecus and Homo, and begins about 5 million years ago. Between 7 and 20 million years ago, primitive apelike animals were widely distributed on the African and, later, on the Eurasian continents. Although many fossil bones and teeth have been found, the way of life of these creatures, and their evolutionary relationships to the living apes and humans, remain matters of active discussion among scientists.
The fossil evidence for human evolution begins with the australopithecines. All the australopithecines were clearly bipedal and therefore apparent hominines. ln details of their teeth, jaws, and brain size, however, they modify enough among themselves to explain division into ﬁve species: Australopithecus anamensis, A. afarensis, A. africanus, A. robust us, and A. boisei. Homo are also divided in ﬁve different spices: Homo erectus, H. habilis, H. sapiens, and H. sapiens sapiens.
Afarensis, lived in eastern Africa between 3 and 4 million years ago. This australopithecine had a brain size a little larger than chimpanzees. Some possessed canine teeth somewhat more sticking out than those of later hominines. No tools of any kind have been found with A. afarensis fossils. Between about 2.5 million and 3 million years ago, A. afarensis apparently evolved into a later australopithecine, A. africanus. A. africanus possessed a brain similar to that of its ancestor. However, although the size of the chewing teeth remained large, the canines, instead of sticking out, grew only to the level of the other teeth. No stone tools have been found in association with A. africanus fossils. The more recent include the A. robustus, limited to soothe Africa, and A. boisei, found only in eastern Africa. The robust australopithecines represent a specialized adaptation because their principal difference from other australopithecines lies in the large size of their chewing teeth, jaws, and jaw muscles.
Homo erectus lived from about 1.8 million to 30,000 years ago. Until recently, Homo erectus was considered an evolutionary ancestor of modern humans, or Homo sapiens. Homo erectus had a larger brain than earlier hominines. Homo erectus was also a taller, with an evenly face and smaller tooth. Large differences in body size between males and females, characteristic of earlier hornjnine species, are less evident in Homo erectus specimens. Scientists believe this species lived in Africa between 2 million and 1.5 million years ago. H. habilis is the earliest known member of the genus Homo. H. habilis had a larger brain than australopithecines. Australopithecines had long arms and short legs, similar to the limbs of apes. Proportionally, H. habilis resembled modern humans with its limbs and small body size relative to its height. H. habilis had smaller molars teeth and a less. raised face than earlier Hominines. H. habilis was taller than australopithecines, but shorter than Homo erectus. H. sapiens are not identical in appearance with modern humans. The opposition doesn’t think the same way as scientists do. Creationists say that human ancestors were not apes. They were always humans, although they were smarter and larger than humans are today. Evolutionary theory is a myth. God created everything. People that believe in creationism say that if man descended from ape-like creatures, then humans should be like them. Yet humans have very different DNA. The number of vertebrae in our backbone is different. Human cranial capacity is totally different. .
As with the theories and beliefs of early cultures, Darwin’s Theory of Evolution must meet the same requirements in order to be
viewed as plausible and believable. If the theory is logically based, mathematically supported, and there is either evidence promoting the theory, or a lack of evidence contrary to the theory it is accepted as a possible theory that explains life’s origins. However, Darwin’s theory fails to meet any of the regulations placed before it.
Logically the concept of a living organism emerging from something that is non-living is challenged greatly from the scientiﬁc community. A community that insists life must come from life, just as motion must come from motion. Just as a billiard ball is incapable of rolling without a force being applied, a stone is incapable of give birth to an amoeba. The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that left to it’s own devices, that is without interference by something else, any living being will break down into its simplest forms, in direct opposition to the theory of evolution that proposes that living beings will change and gain in complexity over time.
The mathematical opposition is equally hindering to the theory evolution. According to the evolutionary timescale the earth is approximately eight to ten billions of years old, that is the equivalent to 1020 or one hundred quintillion seconds. According to the same theory there are approximately 1080 atoms found in the universe. Even with these astounding numbers, it is highly unlikely to achieve odds such as 1 in 103,000,000 the same odds that a scientist named Edward Huxley estimated to be the odds of a horse evolving, let alone the chances of more complex life such as humans.
The ﬁnal opposition to the theory of evolution is the lack of supporting physical evidence. One of the best-known ways to learn of animals and life from ancient eras was to uncover fossils and bone material located in what is called the fossil record. The fossil record is a name applied to the layers upon layers of fossils and soil found in the earths crust. Early in the stages of geology, evolutionary theory proposed that the fossils that would be unearthed would be clear evidence for the theory, showing various stages of development from one species to another. Geology continued to grow and the interest in the fossils increased, scientists around the world were certain that this new study would provide the proof needed to prove the validity of Darwin’s theory. The fossils have shown clear separations between the various species, not the blurred distinctions that the evolutionists had hoped the fossils would show.
Just as other theories have been subject to rigorous standards in he past, evolution must also be subject to the same testing. Due to the logical fallacies, mathematical impossibilities and the abundance of physical evidence contrary to the theory of evolution it cannot be neither plausible, nor believable. ‘
No evidence is available about human remains from earlier times, which support evolutionary theory. In some areas, ancient humans moved into difficult climatic areas and, for a time, lived in “stone-age
cultures” until they had opportunity to build cities, plant, and become caught up in animal agriculture. ln some conditions have been so difficult that stone-age living has continued down to the present time. Sometimes people lived in caves for a time until they could become settled in homes. There is evidence that anciently, as now, people lived in homes at the same time that others were living under trees or in caves.