The Effects Of The Industrial Revolution
Role and Relationship of Trade Unions with Industrial
Industrialization Along With Its Good and Bad Impacts
Industrial Revolution: A Milestone towards Progress
- Primary hardships faced by the Industrial Revolution
- Industrial setup and mass-production
- Establishment of trade unions
- Beneﬁts of Industrial Revolution
- its present day effects
Industrial Revolution was the widespread replacement of manual labour by machines that began in Britain in the 18th century and is still continuing in some parts of the world. The Industrial Revolution was the result of many fundamental, interrelated changes that transformed agricultural economies into industrial ones. The most immediate changes were in the nature of production: what was produced, as well as where and how. Goods that had traditionally been made in the home or in small workshops began to be manufactured in the factory. Productivity and technical efﬁciencygrew dramatically, in part through the systematic application of scientiﬁc and practical knowledge to the manufacturing process. Efficiency was also enhanced when large groups of business enterprises were located within a limited area. The Industrial Revolution led to the growth of cities as people moved from rural areas into urban communities in search of work.
The changes brought by the Industrial Revolution overturned not only traditional economies, but also whole societies. Economic changes caused far-reaching social changes, including the movement of people to cities, the availability of a greater variety of material goods, and new ways of doing business. The Industrial Revolution was the ﬁrst step in modern economic growth and development. Economic development was combined with superior military technology to make the nations of
Europe and their cultural offshoots, such as the United States, the most powerful in the world in the 18th and 19th centuries.
The industrial Revolution began in Great Britain during the last half of the 18th century and spread through regions of Europe and to the United States during the following century. ln the 20th century industrialization on a wide scale extended to parts of Asia and the Paciﬁc Rim. Today mechanized production and modern economic growth continue to spread to new areas of the world, and much of humankind has yet to experience the changes typical of the Industrial Revolution.
The Industrial Revolution is called a revolution because it changed society both signiﬁcantly and rapidly. Over the course of human history, there has been only one other group of changes as signiﬁcant as the Industrial Revolution. This is what anthropologists call the Neolithic Revolution, which took place in the later part of the Stone Age. In the Neolithic Revolution, people moved from social systems based on hunting and gathering to much more complex communities that depended on agriculture and the domestication of animals. This led to the rise of permanent settlements and, eventually, urban civilizations. The Industrial Revolution brought a shift from the agricultural societies created during the Neolithic Revolution to modern industrial societies.
The social changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution were signiﬁcant. As economic activities in many communities moved from agriculture to manufacturing, production shifted from its traditional locations in the home and the small workshop to factories. Large portions of the population relocated from the countryside to the towns and cities where manufacturing centers were found. The overall amount of goods and services produced expanded dramatically, and the proportion of capital invested per worker grew. New groups of investors, businesspeople, and managers took ﬁnancial risks and reaped great rewards.
In the long run the industrial Revolution has brought economic improvement for most people in industrialized societies. Many enjoy greater prosperity and improved health, especially those in the middle and the upper classes of society. There have been costs, however. In some cases, the lower classes of society have suffered economically. Industrialization has brought factory pollutants and greater land use, which have harmed the natural environment. ln particular, the application of machinery and science to agriculture has led to greater land use and, therefore, extensive loss of habitat for animals and plants. In addition, drastic population growth following industrialization has contributed to the decline of natural habitats and resources. These factors, in turn, have caused many species to become extinct or endangered.
The Industrial Revolution was absolutely beneﬁcial to the progress of the world from the 1800s all the way to present day. Sacrifices were made which allowed technological advancements during
the Industrial Revolution, which in turn, created happiness, life opportunities, and an over-all, deﬁnite amelioration of life.
At the beginning of the industrial Revolution, many hardships had to be overcome, causing great grief to most of the population. Faith was lost, patience was tried, and a blanket of oppression covered the people of Europe. When new inventions arose to facilitate the producing and mass-producing of goods that supplied the people of Europe, nearly everyone was forced to begin a new career within a factory. These are just some of the hardships that many loyal, hardworking citizens were faced with. The reverberations of these new inventions caused a dramatic plummet of the life expectancy of an average citizen to an alarming 15 years of age. Women and children were expected to work up to 16 hours a day and doing labour that could cause serious injury, like carrying extremely heavy loads. For their work, they were paid ridiculous wages, women around 5 shillings per week, and children about 1. One can easily recognize the negative aspects of such a dramatic event. However, if one “steps back” to view the revolution as a whole, he will notice that the positive aspects completely out-weigh the negative aspects.
The revolution began when inventors introduced their creations to improve the way people were producing goods. Machines such as the cotton gin, water frame, power loom, and spinning jenny allowed textile products to be produced in mass quantities. These techniques of mass- production made other methods such as cottage industry, where families produce items by hand, obsolete. As a result of this, people began to work in factories with these machines. Factories became so dominant that eventually the cottage industry ‘no longer played a part in people’s lives.“ This dramatically changed people’s lifestyles, and for a long period of time, there were terrible work conditions. These factories had its positive and negative aspects. The work conditions were very dangerous, there were no safety devices, and many had to work long hours. However, due to the mass production, many jobs were available, and the prices of goods considerably decreased because of the extreme availability.
The job opportunities and price decrease deﬁnitely improved the lives of the people, giving them a chance to be a part of the society and be able to purchase products at a price that wasn’t too bad.
As the revolution progressed, people began to realize that there were solutions to the problems and hardships that they battled every day. The people went to the Parliament with an answer: unions. A union is an organized group up people working for a mutual cause. In 1824, the right to form unions was established. These unions created laws and regulations that made working less dangerous and cruel, and more sanitary. Consecutive acts were formed that lessened the amount of hours women and children could work in the factories and safety and sanitary regulations were enforced. One act that really beneﬁted the
rules of labour for children was the Factory Act of 1833. This act stated that children had to be over 9 years old to work in factories, and children 9-13 years old couldn’t work more than 9 hours, and children 13-18 years old could not work more than 12 hours. Eventually, personal insurance developed which led to social security. These are the positive outcomes that derived from the industrial revolution that effects the workers.
Now let us view how many people’s lives changed outside work. There were many national beneﬁts of this revolution. One very important aspect is that there became many more goods available because of the mass-production. Due to this mass-producing, the goods also dropped in price, which considerably beneﬁted those who were ﬁnancially struggling. Along with the mass-producing came more employment opportunities, which allowed some of the less fortunate people to have a chance of getting a job. The increase of new ideas and inventions led to an increase of the quality of life. Medicinal products became more plentiful, transportation improved, and free education was available. People began to ﬁnd themselves with more leisure time. Wages were increased, health beneﬁts became available, and eventually, pension became available to those who retired. These are just some of the many aspects of the revolution that beneﬁted the people as a nation, which made them happier, and made the government safer from rebellion.
There is still one more aspect of this revolution and that is the effects of it on present day. Without the inventions and changes that took place to form a more ideal society, we wouldn’t be where we are today. Without labour laws and health beneﬁts, the life expectancy of a human would drop at least 20 years. Our lives would not be integrated with the technology that helps us learn and grow such as computers, cars, and airplanes. Without the growth of industrialization, there would not be the need for any of these inventions, and we would all still be working on a farm. Some would say that they would rather live on a farm, but many can easily see how much better our lives are with the effects of the industrialization.
Let us “step back” and view the revolution as a whole now. ln the beginning, people struggled and suffered, and this happens with all change. and progress; people sacriﬁces. As time passed, people gained more beneﬁts, and their lives became better. Work became much less tedious, and many people found themselves with more extra time. Finally there is the modern day and the future. Technology and industry has dominated our world, improving it to a point that would have been unimaginable one hundred years ago, and with the help of the people, the sacriﬁcing and the hardships, progress continues.