Chemistry 10

Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of Chemistrymatter. Chemistry includes topics such as the properties of individual atoms, how atoms form chemical bonds to create chemical compounds, the interactions of substances through inter molecular forces that give matter its general properties, and the interactions between substances through chemical reactions to form different substances.

Chemistry* is sometimes called the central science because it bridges other natural sciences, including physics, geology and biology. For the differences between chemistry and physics see comparison of chemistry and physics.

Scholars disagree about the etymology of the word chemistry. The history of chemistry can be traced to alchemy, which had been practiced for several millennia in various parts of the world.

In retrospect, the definition of chemistry has changed over time, as new discoveries and theories add to the functionality of the science. The term “chymistry*”, in the view of noted scientist Robert Boyle in 1661, meant the subject of the material principles of mixed bodies.  In 1663 the chemist Christopher Glaser described “chymistry” as a scientific art, by which one learns to dissolve bodies, and draw from them the different substances on their composition, and how to unite them again, and exalt them to a higher perfection.

The 1730 definition of the word “chemistry*”, as used by Georg Ernst Stahl, meant the art of resolving mixed, compound, or aggregate bodies into their principles; and of composing such bodies from those principles.[13] In 1837, Jean-Baptiste Dumas considered the word “chemistry*” to refer to the science concerned with the laws and effects of molecular forces. This definition further evolved until, in 1947, it came to mean the science of substances: their structure, their properties, and the reactions that change them into other substances – a characterization accepted by Linus Pauling. More recently, in 1998, Professor Raymond Chang broadened the definition of “chemistry*” to mean the study of matter and the changes it undergoes.

Chapter No. 9      Chemical Equilibrium

Chapter No. 10    Acids, Bases and Salts

Chapter No. 11    Organic Chemistry

Chapter No. 12    Hydrocarbons      

Chapter No. 13    Biochemistry

Chapter No. 14    The Atmosphere

Chapter No. 15    Water 

Chapter No. 16    Chemical Industries

Dictionary

Chapter No. 10    Acids, Bases and Salts

MCQ1                    MCQ2                          MCQ3                            MCQ4                          MCQ5     

Chapter No. 11    Organic Chemistry*

MCQ1                    MCQ2                          MCQ3                            MCQ4                          MCQ5   

Chapter No. 12    Hydrocarbons      

MCQ1                    MCQ2                          MCQ3                            MCQ4                     MCQ5

Chapter No. 13    Biochemistry

MCQ1                    MCQ2                          MCQ3                            MCQ4                     MCQ5

Chapter No. 14    Environmental Chemistry* i: The Atmosphere

MCQ1                    MCQ2                          MCQ3                            MCQ4                     MCQ5

Chapter No. 15    Environmental Chemistry* ii: Water Solved

MCQ1                    MCQ2                          MCQ3                            MCQ4                     MCQ5

Chapter No. 16    Chemical Industries

MCQ1                    MCQ2                          MCQ3                            MCQ4                     MCQ5

 

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