ACIDS, BASES/ALKALIS AND SALTS: You have already read that a large number of compounds can be made by the combination of various elements. More than three million compounds are known to the scientists. It is practically impossible for anyone to learn about each of these compounds. Therefore, all these compounds are divided into different groups […]


CHEMICAL REACTIONS: We have already learnt about elements and compounds which are the examples of pure matter. The substances such as hydrogen (H), oxygen (O) etc. are the elements while 2 2 water (HO), carbon dioxide (CO), etc., are the compounds. It is our daily observation 2 2 that water can be changed into ice. […]


POLLUTANTS : The environment we live in is not as clean as it should be. Various natural and human activities contaminate it with harmful substances. Dust storms, rotting of vegetation, volcanic eruption, etc., are the natural phenomena which release dust particles and poisonous gases in the environment. On the other hand, burning of fuels in […]


Biotechnology: Application of knowledge in the areas like engineering and medicines, etc., is called technology. The technology in which living things are used in different ways to help and benefit human beings is called biotechnology. Microorganisms are used in making bread, yogurt, cheese, vinegar and several medicines. Fermentation, tissue culture and genetic engineering, etc., are […]


CELL DIVISION: It is our common observation that living things grow and increase in size. It is also observed that offspring resemble their parents. We have learnt that all the living things are made up of cells. Hence, more and more cells are needed for growth and development of living things. Where do new cells […]


HUMAN ORGAN SYSTEMS: Nervous System Whenever a person gets injury on his foot while walking, he feels pain and his hand immediately reaches the injured site. Who asked the hand to reach the site? In fact, there is an organ system in our body which carries messages form one part of the body to another […]

Protection of Women. Gender Sensitization and its Awareness

Gender Sensitization and its Awareness Gender refers to the socially made roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a society considers acceptable for men and girls. social group norms dictate what a person and a lady will or cannot do, and to that resources they will get access to. totally {different|completely different} societies approve different levels […]

Chapter No. 9 Population, Society and Culture of Pakistan

Growth and Distribution of Population in Asian nation Population, Society and Culture of Asian nation: Pakistan could be a densely inhabited country. Density of population suggests that the typical variety of individuals living in a very sq. kilometer. Asian nation is that the sixth largest country within the world with relevance population. the primary 5 […]

Economic Development. According to Professor Arthur Lewis

Definition of economic development per faculty member Arthur Lewis,“The increase within the production of products and services is termed economic development”.To lead a stronger life, basic changes are caused within the economy which ends up in economic development. In short, the movement of a backward economy towards turning into a developed economy is termed economic […]

Chapter No. 7 Foreign Relations of Pakistan

Foreign Relations of Pakistan: Pakistan is located within the south of the continent of Asia; it’s a rustic of fertile land, mountains, rivers and delightful valleys. It shares its japanese border with Asian country, northern border with China, and western border with Islamic State of Afghanistan|Asian country|Asian nation} and Islamic Republic of Iran whereas to […]

Chapter 6 History of Pakistan – II Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Era: twentieth Gregorian calendar month 1971 to fifth July 1977 Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto took over the workplace of President of Pakistan similarly as Civil law Administrator on twentieth Gregorian calendar month 1971. He was the primary civilian law Administrator of the country. to form a replacement spirit within the nation, modify them […]

Chapter No. 18 Pharmacology

Pharmacology is the study of drug composition, properties and medical applications. The sources of drugs are also studied in pharmacology. Clinical pharmacology was present in the Middle Ages. Early pharmacologists focused on natural substances, mainly plant extracts. Pharmacology developed in the 19th century as a biomedical science. Any substance that, when absorbed into the body […]