How crude oil is refined? Explain the important fractions of petroleum along with their usage.

No.6. How crude oil is refined? Explain the important fractions of petroleum along with their usage. Answer.   Crude   oil   is   refined   by   fractional   distillation   in   a fractionating tower. Important Fractions of Petroleum Each fraction is not a single compound. Rather each one is a mixture of hydrocarbons having different number of carbon atoms in it. […]

Write a note on fractional distillation of petroleum.

  No.4. Write a note on fractional distillation of petroleum. Answer. The crude oil is refined in the refineries. Refining process is the separation of crude oil mixture into various  useful  products (fractions). It is carried out by a process called fractional distillation. The principle of fractional distillation is based upon separation of substances depending […]

Write a detailed note on Ammonia Solvay process.

No.3. Write a detailed note on Ammonia Solvay process.  Answer. Principle of Solvay process lies in the low solubility of sodium bicarbonate at low temperature i.e. at 15°C. When CO2 is passed through an ammonical solution of NaCl called ammonical brine, only NaHCO3 precipitates. Na+(aq) + HCO3–(aq)         NaHCO3(s) Raw Materials: The raw materials needed for […]

What is the difference between crude oil and residual oil?

No.16. What is the difference between crude oil and residual oil? Answer. Crude oil is the dark brownish viscous liquid formed by decomposition of remains of dead plants and animals in the absence of air because of high pressure, temperature and bacterial effects. When it is heated in a furnace up to 400°C under high […]

What happens when ammonical brine is carbonated?

No.7. What happens when ammonical brine is carbonated? Answer. Ammonical brine is fed into carbonating tower and carbon dioxide is passed through it. Following reactions take place in the carbonating tower. CO2(g) + NH3(g) + H2O                NH4HCO3(1) NH4HCO3(1) + NaCl (brine)            NaHCO3(1) + NH4Cl(s) The temperature of the mixture is lowered to 15°G and precipitates […]

What do you mean by a fraction of petroleum?

No. v. What do you mean by a fraction of petroleum? Answer. Fraction of petroleum means a part of petroleum that is a mixture of hydrocarbons having different number of carbon atoms in it. Each fraction has its specific name, boiling range and usage in daily life. No.1. What role is played by pine oil […]

Give the reaction of formation of ammonia in the process.

No.iv. Give the reaction of formation of ammonia in the process. Answer. It is prepared by the Haber’s process. One volume of nitrogen (from air) and three volumes of hydrogen (obtained by passing methane and steam over heated nickel catalyst) are passed over iron catalyst at 450°C and 200 atm pressure. N2 + 3H2               2NH3 […]

Define concentration process used in metallurgy of copper.

No. i. Define concentration process used in metallurgy of copper. Answer. The process of removal of gangue from the ore is technically known as concentration and the purified ore is called the concentrate. The concentration process used in metallurgy of copper is froth flotation. It is based on the wetting characteristic of the ore and […]

What is water pollution? Describe the effects of using polluted water?

No.8. What is water pollution? Describe the effects of using polluted water. Answer. Water pollution is a contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans and ground water). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful Compounds. Water pollution has the following effects: (i)      […]

Explain five important waterborne diseases. How can these be prevented?

  No.6. Explain five important waterborne diseases. How can these be prevented? Answer. The important waterborne diseases are (i) Diarrhea diseases. Intestinal diseases, such as cholera, that may cause dangerous dehydration. Diarrhea may be caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites. (ii) Cholera   Cholera is an acute infection caused by the bacteria Vibrios choleroe, which may […]

Justify the statement: house hold water is the reason of water pollution.

No.4. Justify the statement: house hold water is the reason of water pollution. Answer. Use of detergents is increasing day by day for cleaning purposes in houses-and industries. It is because; detergents have strong cleaning action than that of soap even in hard water. They can work even in acidic solutions. But they have a […]